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Advanced Layered Double Hydroxide-Based Electrocatalysts for Electrocatalytic Oxygen Evolution Reaction
Tariq Ali, Niaz Muhammad, Tingzhou Yang, and Chenglin Yan
General Chemistry    DOI: 10.21127/yaoyigc20200001
Abstract   PDF (477KB)
Layered double hydroxides (LDHs) are the most promising candidates among all candidates for electrocatalytic water splitting, especially oxygen evolution reaction. Electrocatalytic activities of LDHs can be attuned by exfoliation, composition, morphology regulation and by intercalating some species. Moreover, exfoliation and flexible ion exchange can be tuned by the unique intercalation properties via flexible tunability of multiple metal cations. However, certain limitations like bulk thickness, large lateral size and low conductivity of LDHs decrease their uses in oxygen evolution reaction. In order to increase its electrocatalytic performances, researchers introduce different strategies such as combining the conductive materials to LDHs to introduce defects and tune the electronic structure of LDHs to enhance the active sites and increase intrinsic activity. In this minireview, we summarized current progress, strategies, challenges and prospective in the fabrication and designing of LDHs materials by various species.
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Chemical Dehydrogenation of Hydrogenated Single Layer Graphene for Reversible Electrical Conductivity
Prathana Paul Chowdhury, Tania Chatterjee, Arnab Mukherjee
General Chemistry    2020, 6 (3): 190034-190034.   DOI: 10.21127/yaoyigc20190034
Abstract   PDF (828KB)
Chemical functionalization of graphene greatly expands its potential in electronic, photovoltaics and bio-logical applications. The band gap tunability of graphene achieved during the process of its hydrogenation and dehydrogenation can open its potential as an acceptor material in organic photovoltaic (OPV) solar cells. In this paper, we report a rapid and extensive hydrogenation of single layer graphene (SLG) by Birch reduction followed by its oxidation back to the conducting SLG. Dehydrogenation of hydrogenated SLG using 2,3-dichloro-5,6-dicyano-1,4-benzoquinone (DDQ) as an oxidising agent was performed successfully. Raman, FT-IR and UV-Vis spectra provides supporting evidence for a successful dehydrogenation reaction. A control experiment without DDQ as an oxidant confirms its active role as an oxidising agent. Magnetic moment study reveals a reversibility of ferromagnetic hydrogenated SLG to a paramagnetic dehyrdrogenated SLG. Finally, the sheet resistance measurement of pristine, hydrogenated and dehydrogenated SLG shows almost complete reversal of the electrical conductivity.
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A Review of Pd Based Multimetallic Anode Electrocatalysts for Direct Formic Acid Fuel Cells
Berdan Ulas, Hilal Kivrak
General Chemistry    DOI: 10.21127/yaoyigc20190028
Abstract   PDF (244KB)
Due to the increasing population and developing industry, the energy demand in the world is increasing. Fuel cells are technologies that can meet this need without a negative impact on the environment. However, for the commercialization of fuel cells, their costs must be reduced and their efficiency increased. An important way to reduce cost is to reduce the amount of Pd, a precious metal used as an anode catalyst, by adding a second metal. The aim of this study is to explain how Pd increases the activity when used as an anode catalyst with a second metal for the formic acid electrooxidation.
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Applications of Ferroelectric Materials in the Field of Photovoltaics
Xinshu Luo, Shixin Xue, Jingbo Zhang
General Chemistry    DOI: 10.21127/yaoyigc20190032
Abstract   PDF (430KB)
To solve the severe energy shortages, a variety of photovoltaic devices such as silicon solar cells, inorganic thin film solar cells, perovskite solar cells, dye-sensitized solar cells, organic solar cells and quantum dot solar cells, have been developed for the utilization of solar energy. Major studies focus on how to improve the photovoltaic performance of these solar cells. Some of ferroelectric materials can be spontaneously polarized and have spontaneous polarization dipole moment inside at room temperature. Recently, some of ferroelectric materials are introduced in these solar cells due to their special properties. They can be used not only as light absorbing materials in ferroelectric solar cells, but also as functional materials due to their ferroelectric characteristic. The measurable macroscopic electric field can be formed inside ferroelectric materials film that can be used as built-in electric field for photovoltaic devices to separate electron-hole pairs and facilitate their transport. Therefore, the introduction of ferroelectric materials into several important solar cells can accelerate the transport rate of photogenerated electrons, thus the short-circuit photocurrent of the cells can be increased and the light-to-electric conversion efficiency is also effectively improved. In this minireview, we summarized the applications of ferroelectric materials in the field of photovoltaics to improve their photovoltaic performance.
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Luminescence of Europium Complexes with Triazole-Containing Ligands
Jae Hoon Kim, A. I. Dalinger, A. V. Medvedko, E. V. Latipov, S. Z. Vatsadze, and V. V. Utochnikova
General Chemistry    DOI: 10.21127/yaoyigc20200002
Abstract   PDF (1397KB)
In the present work, eleven new complexes of europium and terbium with substituted azoles ligands were obtained as candidates for sensor materials for phosphinoxide. As a result, a new material with high sensitivity of up to 9%/µL was obtained.
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Amino Acids in Boron Neutron Capture Therapy—Prospects for Precise Treatment of Malignant Brain Tumors
Juri M. Timonen
General Chemistry    DOI: 10.21127/yaoyigc20190024
Abstract   PDF (397KB)
During the last 60 years, a great number of boron-containing compounds have been synthesized and designated as potential boron carriers for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) of several types of cancer. Several of these putative boron carriers are derivatives of α-amino acids (AAs). Despite sixty years of research, there are only two compounds used in the clinic including boronophenylalanine (BPA). Cancer cells have long been known to consume enormous amounts of nutrients such as AAs. Recent studies have revealed many mechanisms, through which they fulfill their demand for nutrients. The large amino acid transporter 1 (LAT1) is an extensively studied transporter. Recent studies have expanded our knowledge and understanding of the structure of LAT1 and its mode of action. It has been demonstrated that BPA and some other AA-based boron carriers are transported by LAT1 into cancer cells. In summary, these advances have opened new prospects for designing novel LAT1-targeted AA-based boron carriers for malignant brain tumors.
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Hollow Polymer Capsules for Drug Delivery
Yuancheng Ji and Junqiu Liu
General Chemistry    DOI: 10.21127/yaoyigc20200009
Abstract   PDF (490KB)
Hollow polymer capsules (HPC) are one of the widely studied topics in two-dimensional (2D) materials as ar-tificial cargo carriers that simulate natural cells containing life substances and complex life activities, In the past two decades, methodologies and application scenarios for the synthesis of polymer capsules with diversified morphology and multiple functions have received extensive attention. In particular, well-defined HPC with hollow compartments can serve as a drug delivery system with high load capacity, low toxicity, targeted and efficient release. This perspective aims to briefly summarize the developed fabrication strategy of HPC, evaluate their application characteristics in drug encapsulation and delivery, and propose a development direction of HPC as an outstanding drug carrier system.
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Nanomaterials for the Adsorptive Removal of Antibiotics from Aqueous Solution: A Minireview
Jamiu. O. Eniola, Rajeev Kumar, M. A. Barakat
General Chemistry    DOI: 10.21127/yaoyigc20190018
Abstract   PDF (241KB)
In the last decade, researchers discovered the existence of new type of emerging pharmaceutical pollutants such as drugs, personal care products, hormones, and so on, in wastewater as well as drinking water. These contaminants are hard to remove using conventional treatment technology. The use of advanced nano-materials-based technologies for the treatment of emerging contaminants from wastewater and drinking are gaining much attention from the researchers. Adsorption is one of the wastewater treatment methods for the decontamination of wastewater. Herein, the applications of a variety of pure materials as well as nanocomposite materials are summarized used for adsorptive removal of antibiotics. The role of different functional groups and adsorption forces are discussed.
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Promises and Challenges of Density Functional Theory in CO2 Reduction
Jenbrie M. Kessete, Taye B. Demissie, Ahmed M. Mohammed
General Chemistry    DOI: 10.21127/yaoyigc20190019
Abstract   PDF (420KB)
The level of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the atmosphere is increasing at an alarming rate. As a result, it has become vital for chemists, environmentalists and other concerned scientists to find ways of transforming undesirable CO2 to fuels and other harmless and valuable chemicals. Among the approaches used for CO2 conversion, metal-based and metal-free catalysis are the most commonly used technologies. Although encouraging results have been obtained in electrocatalytic, photocatalytic, and photoelectrochemical CO2 reduction and hydrogenation, obtaining selective and stable catalysts at lower temperature has remained a challenge. Un-derstanding the details of the reaction mechanisms is also another challenge. Computational studies using density functional theory (DFT) have potentials in alleviating such challenges. In this minireview, we highlight the promising areas where DFT can contribute and the challenges related to such computational studies aiming to show the already available opportunities for further improvements in the field.
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C—H Activation, a New Strategy for Synthesis of 3-Substituted Phthalides
Qianqian Sun, Runqing Zhu, Shuyu Hu, and Lizhen Fang
General Chemistry    DOI: 10.21127/yaoyigc20200010
Abstract   PDF (1914KB)
Phthalides are an important class of compounds owing to their role as the key structural motifs in bioactive natural products and pharmaceutical synthesis. C—H activation has become a promising strategy for preparation of phthalides due to its advantages of high efficiency and atomic economy compared with the traditional methods. In this paper, we summarized recent advances on synthesis of 3-substituted phthalides via C—H activation according to different transition metal catalytic systems.
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SnSe Solar Cells: Current Results and Perspectives
Paul Beltrán-Bobadilla, A. Carrillo-Osuna, J. A. Rodriguez-Valverde, B. Acevedo-Juárez, I. Montoya De Los Santos, F. J. Sánchez-Rodriguez, and Maykel Courel
General Chemistry    DOI: 10.21127/yaoyigc20200012
Abstract   PDF (476KB)
This work presents current advances and perspectives on SnSe thin film solar cell technology. Nowadays, SnSe solar cells have not been able to achieve efficiency values higher than 7%. In this sense, it is necessary to study the potentiality of SnSe compound in solar cells that could help to understand further routes to promote this technology. It is demonstrated that efficiencies about 25% are expected under the ideal conditions of a low density of defects at SnSe bulk, the SnSe/buffer interface and the use of a buffer layer with a high band-gap, so that most photons get absorbed in the SnSe material with a good lattice matching to the SnSe and the negligible contribution of resistances. The comparison of our results with the one experimentally reported demonstrates that Jsc values constitute the first main issue to be solved in this technology.
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Synthesis of Azobenzene-Based Ion-Imprinted Polymers for Selective Removal of Cobalt and Copper Ions from a Mixture of Metal Ions
Tapan Kumar Biswas, Mashitah Mohd Yusoff, Mohd Sani Sarjadi, Sazmal E, Arshad, Baba Musta, Md Lutfor Rahman
General Chemistry    DOI: 10.21127/yaoyigc20190009
Abstract   PDF (790KB)
Azobenzene based metal ion-imprinted polymers (IIPs) were synthesized for selective separation of Co(II) and Cu(II) ions from the mixture of metal ions. After polymerization, cavities for the Co2+ and Cu2+ ions were created in the polymer materials by leaching with hydrochloric acid solution. The synthesized IIPs were characterized by FT-IR, 1H NMR and elemental analysis. The competitive sorption studies were carried out to evaluate the selectivity of the target metal ions. Interestingly, the observed sorption capacity was pH dependent and maximum sorption was found to be 95.4 and 103.0 mg ·g−1 for Co-IIPs and Cu-IIPs at pH 5, respectively. It was observed that the IIPs showed good selectivity to Co(II) and Cu(II) ions in the presence of other bi and trivalent metal ions in solution. Reused capacity was also checked for six times without a significant decrease in binding affinity for IIPs.
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Effect of Surface Modified Fullerene C70 on the ROS Production and Cellular Integrity Using Chinese Hamster Ovarian Cells
S. Anju, J. Ashtami, P. V. Mohanan
General Chemistry    DOI: 10.21127/yaoyigc20190022
Abstract   PDF (1034KB)
Fullerene, a distinct buckyball structured carbon allotrope, has immense popularity among various scientific disciplines. Comparing various fullerene allotropes, recent attention is focused on C70 fullerene owing to it potent applications in various interdisciplinary arenas including optoelectronics, photovoltaics as well as in biomedical technology. Although C70 suggests as a tunable material in biomedicine, con-vincing results about its toxic effects are still under controversy, which recommends the necessity for proper toxicity evaluation. Dextran polysaccharide was effectively coated on C70 to overcome the poor dispersion in water and for achieving proper stabilization. The as-prepared material was further characterized using various sophisticated techniques such as DLS, TEM, FTIR and zeta potential. Chinese Hamster Ovarian cell lines (CHO) served as the subject for major experiments. Various cytotoxicity assays and DCFH-DA probe ROS scavenging analysis were done. Morphological examinations of major sub-cellular organelles were carried out with the aid of fluorescent microscopy for nuclear condensation, mitochondrial membrane potential, lysosomal integrity, cytoskeletal integrity, etc. Flow cytometric FACS analysis for possible apoptosis-necrosis mediated cell death assessment and DNA ladder experiment for genotoxicity was done. Cell viability assays show up to 80% live CHO cells after dextran-coated C70 treatment for 24 h. The fluorescent staining results that confirm intact or-ganelles further prove the non-toxic nature of dextran-coated C70. DNA laddering assay results ex-clude chances for genotoxic potential of dextran-coated C70. Experimental results of the present study indicate that dextran stabilized C70 fullerene is a potent candidate material for futuristic healthcare ap-plications.
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Organocatalytic Diels-Alder Reactions: Theoretical Perspective
Chao-Xian Yan, Fang-Ling Yang, Ka Lu, Pan-Pan Zhou
General Chemistry    DOI: 10.21127/yaoyigc20190014
Abstract   PDF (350KB)
Diels-Alder reaction is one of the most effective ways to construct six-membered ring with mul-ti-stereocenters in one step, which is important but challenging. In this perspective, we focus on research significance and recent progress of theoretical investigations on organocatalytic Diels-Alder reactions, and look forward to further research directions.
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Insights Into the Gelation of Biphenyl Coupled Pyridyl Bisamides
Santanu Panja, and Kumaresh Ghosh
General Chemistry    DOI: 10.21127/yaoyigc20200004
Abstract   PDF (1538KB)
Biphenyl coupled isomeric pyridyl bisamides 1—4 have been synthesized and their gelation propensities have been thoroughly investigated. In spite of having a pyridine center, capable of forming water linking network and hydrogen bonding amide functionality, all the compounds behave as non-gelator in organic and semi aqueous solvents. However, in presence of Ag+ ions, only compound 1 forms gel and validates its visual sensing over other metal ions. The nongelation behaviour of other derivatives 2, 3 and also meta derivative 4 highlights the effect of positional role of the pyridine ring nitrogen with respect to the biphenyl ring as well as endorse the isomeric substitution in biphenyl ring, respectively. Spectroscopic studies confirm that the metal coordination as well as the hydrogen bonding involving the amide NHs of 1 plays a pivotal role in establishing the gel network in solution. Not only through gelation, compound 1 also selectively recognizes Ag+ ions fluorimetrically in a turn-on mode in solution state and correlates the gel phase observations.
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Optical and Magnetic Properties of Superparamagnetic Fe3O4 Colloidal Nanoparticles
B. K. Pandey, A. K. Shukla, R. K. Kotanala, J. Shah, and R. Gopala
General Chemistry    DOI: 10.21127/yaoyigc20200006
Abstract   PDF (1241KB)
Magnetic nanomaterials gained widespread interest due to remarkable future applications in various fields. The purpose of present work is to explore magnetic and optical properties of ultra pure superparamagnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles. Nowadays, superparamagnetism is receiving considerable interest in terms of biomedical and engineering applications. Herein, Fe3O4 superparamagnetic nanoparticles have been successfully synthesized by pulsed laser ablation method in the presence of anionic surfactants in liquid environments. The structural, morphological, optical and magnetic properties have been studies using X Ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscope (TEM), UV-visible absorption, ATR-FTIR and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), respectively. The optical band gaps of as synthesized and after agglomeration Fe3O4 nanoparticles have been estimated in the range of 2.27—2.86 eV and 2.27—2.87 eV, depending on surfactant concentration. TEM image showed Fe3O4 nanoparticles possess mean diameter in the range of 5—25 nm. The saturation magnetization and coercivity of Fe3O4 nanoparticles have been estimated 0.36 emu·g-1 and 33 Oe at room temperature, respectively. Therefore, as synthesized Fe3O4 nanoparticles showed superparamagnetic character at room temperature.
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Chemical Sensors towards Environmental Toxic Molecule Monitoring: Fluores-cent Probes for Detection of Thiophenol
Lirong Jiang, Juanjuan Wu, Douyong Min, João Rodrigues, Ruilong Sheng
General Chemistry    2020, 6 (3): 190027-190027.   DOI: 10.21127/yaoyigc20190027
Abstract   PDF (547KB)
Thiophenols, a family of important industrial chemicals, is highly toxic for aquatic organisms and human beings. Developing new chemical sensors with the merit of fast, low cost, portable, selective and sensitive, as well as visualizable signal output for efficient detection of thiophenols, is highly desirable. This spotlight article reviewed and discussed the current trend and statement of thiophenols-specific fluorescent probes. Moreover, the future outlook in this field was also stated.
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Protein-Pd Complexes Conjugates as Artificial Enzymes
Jose M Palomo, Esteban P. Urriolabeitia
General Chemistry    DOI: 10.21127/yaoyigc20190030
Abstract   PDF (302KB)
The combination of enzymes and palladium organometallic complexes has been recently developed for the creation of new types of artificial metalloenzymes. Different methods considering the kind of protein used, from a core protein to an enzyme, or the strategies for the selective insertion of the organometallic complex from direct Pd bonding to protein amino acid, affinity interactions or covalent attachment by a Pd complex ligand have been developed. This methodology affords new Pd catalysts with highest selectivity and activity in different reactions at milder conditions compared with the free Pd complexes.
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Ultrasensitive in-vitro Detection Assay for Non-invasive Alzheimer’s Disease Diagnosis
See-Lok Ho, Hei-Nga Chan, Hung-Wing Li, Man-Shing Wong
General Chemistry    DOI: 10.21127/yaoyigc20190035
Abstract   PDF (165KB)
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most prevalent cause of dementia. According to the Alzheimer’s Disease Association, there are over 37 million patients currently suffering from AD. To date, there is still no standard method for accurate AD diagnosis. Detection of biomarkers has become a new trend for disease diagnosis as research has shown that alternation of the expression profile of biomarkers occurs over 10 years before the development of any symptoms. Recently, there is a considerable development in the field of ultrasensitive detection assay for AD diagnosis. This perspective gives an updated review of the current state of development on body fluid-based detection assay for non-invasive AD diagnosis.
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Component Optimization for Catalyst Layers in Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells
Jiaheng Peng, Wencong Zhang, Xuewei Zhang, Peng Tao, Chengyi Song, Wen Shang, Tao Deng and Jianbo Wu
General Chemistry    DOI: 10.21127/yaoyigc2020200016
Abstract   PDF (655KB)
Proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) have been recognized as a promising energy conversion solution. The biggest challenges for the commercialization of PEMFCs are cost and durability. Although many efforts have been made on catalysts, the performance and durability of the membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs) still cannot fully meet the targets established by the U.S. Department of Energy. Optimizing the catalyst layer to maximize the utilization of catalysts is a quite practical issue. In this paper, we reviewed the most recent advances on the component optimization for catalyst layers, including support materials, ionomers, and solvents. Based on the reaction mechanism on the three-phase boundary, enhancing the intrinsic properties of each component and optimizing their interactions can attribute a lot to the performance and durability of PEMFCs.
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“Solar Energy. Now”. Anticipating and Fostering the Energy Transition at the Sun New Energy Conference
Mario Pagliaro, Rosaria Ciriminna, Francesco Meneguzzo, Vittorio Loddo, Leonardo Palmisano
General Chemistry    DOI: 10.21127/yaoyigc20190026
Abstract   PDF (1160KB)
The outcomes of gathering leading scholars in solar energy, materials science and energy efficiency at the beginning of the world’s energy transition to renewable energy at the “SuNEC-Sun New Energy Conference” held in Sicily between 2011 and 2016 suggest two major achievements and have two lessons to teach.
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PVP-Protected Pt-Ru Nanoparticles as Highly Efficient Catalysts for Hydrogen Generation from Hydrolysis of Sodium Borohydride
Murat Rakap
General Chemistry    DOI: 10.21127/yaoyigc20200003
Abstract   PDF (829KB)
The employment of poly(N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone) (PVP)-protected platinum-ruthenium nanoparticles (3.2 ± 1.4 nm) as catalysts in the hydrolysis of sodium borohydride for hydrogen generation is reported. They have been prepared by co-reduction of two metal ions in ethanol/water mixture by an alcohol reduction method and characterized by UV-Vis spectroscopy, TEM-EDX analysis, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. They are recyclable and highly efficient catalysts for hydrogen generation from the hydrolysis of sodium borohydride even at very low concentrations and temperature, providing record average turnover frequency (TOF) value (549 mol•H2/mol•cat•min−1) and maximum hydrogen generation rate (16126 L•H2•min−1 (mol•cat)−1). Poly(N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone)-protected platinum-ruthenium nano-particles also provide activation energy of 63.2 ± 2 kJ•mol−1 for the hydrolysis of sodium borohydride.
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Role of Oxygen Defects on Photoelectrochemical Activity of ZnO Nanorods Grown on Transparent Conducting Oxide Thin Film
Hasmat Khan, Srikrishna Samanta, Malobi Seth, Sunirmal Jana
General Chemistry    2020, 6 (3): 190025-190025.   DOI: 10.21127/yaoyigc20190025
Abstract   PDF (1155KB)
ZnO nanorods (NRs) were grown onto ZnO seed layer deposited FTO glass substrate via hydrothermal technique at ~95 °C. The as-deposited samples were further heat-treated at ~400 °C in a furnace under air at-mosphere. With varying time, the kinetic study of the growth of ZnO towards NRs formation was also performed. To enhance oxygen defects such as oxygen vacancy in the NRs, the thermally cured samples were further heat-treated in 5% H2 gas atmosphere at ~350 °C. Morphological and microstructural analyses, estimation of oxygen vacancy in the samples were carried out by field emission scanning and transmission electron mi-croscopies and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, respectively. Moreover, the optical properties of the specimen were also characterized by photoluminescence spectral study. A co-relation was also made between the reduced gas treatment time and the photoelectrochemical (PEC) activity of the samples. The ZnO NRs synthesized by optimizing the time for the growth of NRs and the reduced gas treatment time exhibited sig-nificant improvement in PEC activity. This work could make an avenue for enhancing the PEC activity of other hierarchically structured metal oxide semiconductors.
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Charge-Assisted Hydrogen Bonds in Self-Assemblies of Small Molecules: Visu-al Detection and Prospects
Jubaraj Bikash Baruah
General Chemistry    DOI: 10.21127/yaoyigc20190017
Abstract   PDF (640KB)
The scopes to utilize weak-interactions in different spheres of sciences are presented through specific examples on the utility of charge-assisted hydrogen bonds of small molecules in distinctions of regio-isomeric carboxylic acids.
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Influence of Polyvinylidene Fluoride Polymorphs in Membrane-Assisted Crystallization: NaCl Crystals Nucleation and Growth
Maria Luisa Perrotta, Antonio Giovanni Bruno, Francesca Macedonio, Zhaoliang Cui, Enrico Drioli, and Elena Tocci
General Chemistry    DOI: 10.21127/yaoyigc20200015
Abstract   PDF (1383KB)
Membrane-assisted crystallization is a new unit operation for separation and/or promotion of pure crystals formation, where microporous hydrophobic membranes are used not as selective barriers but to promote water vapor transfer between phases inducing supersaturation in solution. Polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) is one of the most utilized polymers due to its excellent combination of properties and processability and has been used in a wide plethora of applications in membrane technology including membrane crystallization. PVDF has different polymorphs and this property is important in membrane technology because different phases might significantly affect the final membrane properties and performances, e.g., on membrane fouling and membrane wetting. A clear correlation between the dominating crystalline phases in PVDF and the performance in membrane contactor applications, and in particular in membrane crystallization is still missing and necessary. In this work, molecular dynamics simulation was utilized to analyze the relationship and influence of different polymorphs of PVDF membranes on crystals formation via membrane crystallization process. Atomistic sim-ulations were used to study the crystal nucleation and growth of sodium chloride in contact with amorphous, α and β PVDF hydrophobic polymer surfaces at a supersaturated concentration of salt. Predictions about the ability of α and β polymorphs to influence the nucleation and growth of salts were obtained. The results specified the crystals (as cluster) size distributions, the size of critical nuclei, and the nucleation rate. The amorphous PVDF led to the formation of smaller but more regular clusters in reference to the other samples; α PVDF produced much more inhomogeneous crystals and of small dimensions; β?PVDF produces crystals of larger dimensions than α PVDF.
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The Central Role of Chemistry in the Transition to Solar Economy: Outcomes of Two Lectures at the Russian Academy of Sciences
Mario Pagliaro
General Chemistry    DOI: 10.21127/yaoyigc20200007
Abstract   PDF (930KB)
On June 8 and 9, 2017, I gave two invited lectures at the Zelinsky Institute of Organic Chemistry (ZIOC) of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow. The first lecture, “Sol-Gel Catalysts: Making Green Chemistry Possible”, focused on the practical outcomes of 25 years of research on sol-gel entrapped catalysts. The second, “Chemistry for the Bioeconomy: From Discussion to Action”, offered a critical insight to the forthcoming bioeconomy. Both lectures aroused much interest in the audience and ended with a vigorous discussion lasting about one hour. An outlook is provided in this study, whose core argument is that in the transition to the solar bioeconomy, chemistry will play a central role. In the latter economy, sunlight, water and wind replace fossil fuels to generate electricity that is then used for all energy end uses, while biomass replaces petroleum as raw material of the chemical industry with the oil refinery becoming a biorefinery.
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La(OTf)3-Catalyzed Synthesis of Nickel(II) β-Iminoporphyrins and Their Conversion to β-Substituted Porphyrin-Thiazolidinone Hybrids
Ranjan K Bhatt, Pargat Singh, Raju Tiwari, and Mahendra Nath
General Chemistry    DOI: 10.21127/yaoyigc20200020
Abstract   PDF (782KB)
Two diverse series of nickel(II) β-iminoporphyrins were prepared in good yields by the reaction of corresponding 2-formyl- and 2-amino-5,10,15,20-tetraphenylporphyrins with primary amines and aldehydes, respectively, in toluene containing a catalytic amount of La(OTf)3 under reflux conditions. These 2-iminoporphyrins further served as precursors to construct novel nickel(II) complexes of β-substituted porphyrinic thiazolidinones in moderate yields on reaction with mercaptoacetic acid in refluxing toluene. All the synthesized porphyrins have been characterized on the basis of spectral data analysis.
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Contents: Gen. Chem. 2/2020
General Chemistry    DOI:
Abstract   PDF (554KB)
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Contents: Gen. Chem. 3/2020
General Chemistry
General Chemistry    DOI:
Abstract   PDF (597KB)
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Contents: Gen. Chem. 4/2020
General Chemistry    DOI:
Abstract   PDF (297KB)
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