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Water Stability of Metal-Organic Framework HKUST-1
Angela Terracinaa, and Gianpiero Buscarino
General Chemistry    2021, 7 (4): 210002-210002.   DOI: 10.21127/yaoyigc20210002
Abstract508)      PDF (1141KB)(425)       Save
Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are a new class of crystalline porous materials, having wide pores which provide extremely high specific surface areas, larger than those typically observed in more common porous materials like zeolites or activated carbons. This peculiar property combined with the frequent presence of open-metal sites, makes them very promising for a broad range of applications, spacing from gas storage or separation, drug delivery, toxic air removal, chemical detectors, etc. However, the industrialization of MOFs is still facing difficulties because of their low stability to water or even air moisture, a substance difficult to avoid in applications like those mentioned. Another issue concerning MOF industrialization consists in the low bulk density of the micrometric powder grains, which typically constitute such materials. Unfortunately, their low mechanical stability seems to make difficult even to enhance the packaging by simple mechanical compaction. In this review, we will particularly focus on the current state of art involving the MOF HKUST-1, especially on the degradation process involved when this MOF interacts with water molecules. Furthermore, we will show the connection between water and mechanical stability, bringing to attention of a study where solid tablets of HKUST-1 powder have been realized without any loss of crystallinity or porosity because of an accurate study on the effects of different degree of hydration during the tableting phases. In addition, in order to highlight the causes of damages induced in the framework upon interaction with water, a comparison with other two copper carboxylate MOFs will be shown, namely STAM-1 and STAM-17-OEt, which differ from HKUST-1 uniquely for the organic ligands.
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Photocatalytic Degradation of Antibiotics and Dyes in Wastewater by Hydrogenated Black Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles Using Design of Experiment L9 Taguchi Orthogonal Array
Alma L. Valenzuela, Michael Green, and Xiaobo Chen
General Chemistry    2021, 7 (4): 210006-210006.   DOI: 10.21127/yaoyigc20210006
Abstract329)      PDF (1649KB)(177)       Save
Aqueous pollution from industrial dyes and antibiotics has brought up much threat to our daily healthy life. In the present work, hydrogenated black TiO 2 nanoparticles (H-TiO 2) are synthetized, their properties are studied, and their potentials in removing dyes (methylene blue, M.B.) and antibiotics such as tetracycline hydrochloride (TC) and ciprofloxacin (CIP) are explored with the support of statistical optimization. The operational controlled parameters such as catalyst amount (g L −1), pH and irradiation time (min) were optimized using Design of Experiment (DOE) L9 Taguchi Orthogonal Array. From Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) results, it can be seen that irradiation time is the most influencing parameter for % MB color removal, % Degradation of TC and CIP, over catalyst amount and pH. The optimal parameters found here are 0.50 g L −1 of hydrogenated H-TiO 2-750 as catalyst, pH 4 for MB, pH 11 for TC and pH 2 for CIP, respectively. In addition, an irradiation time of 30 min shows a maximum MB color removal of 95.05%, TC 94.8% and CIP 92.25%. Irradiation time is found to be the most influencing parameter (71.08% for MB, 55.33% for TC and 52.77% for CIP) followed by catalyst amount (28.82% for MB, 44.19% for TC and 41.5% for CIP) and in the end pH (0.09% for MB, 0.47% for TC and 5.72% for CIP). With the use of hydrogenated H-TiO 2-750, the dye and antibiotics degradation reaches almost 40% more than using TiO 2 pristine anatase.
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Progress in  D−A−D-type Small  Molecule  Hole-Transport Materials  for Perovskite Solar Cells
Yajie Fu, Muhammad Sohail, Aaqib Khurshid, Derong Cao
General Chemistry    2021, 7 (4): 210009-210009.   DOI: 10.21127/yaoyigc20210009
Abstract215)      PDF (1315KB)(217)       Save
As one of the key  components of perovskite solar cells (PSCs), hole transport materials (HTMs)  effectively improve the performance and stability of the devices and greatly promote the development of PSCs. At present, due to the advantages of flexible structure design, simple synthesis, low-cost and abundant raw materials, organic  small molecule HTMs have been studied extensively by researchers. Among them, small molecule HTMs  with donor–acceptor (D –A) type structures for PSCs have received great attention in the last few years because of their high hole mobility due to strong dipolar intermolecular interactions,  minimizing ohmic losses of the contact, good stability, and high solubility. In this review, we mainly introduce some representative  D−A−D-type  small molecule HTMs, summarize and comment on their properties, and discuss the relationship between molecular structure and performance parameters of devices. Finally, based on the current research, the future design of new efficient HTMs is prospected.
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More Than Spirobifluorene: Low-Cost, Stable and High-Performance  Spiro[ f luorene-9,9′-xanthene] Derivatives for Organic Electronics
Maoxuan Sun, Bao-Yi Ren, Ling-Hai Xie
General Chemistry    2021, 7 (4): 210001-210001.   DOI: 10.21127/yaoyigc20210001
Abstract197)      PDF (496KB)(151)       Save
Spiro[fluorene-9,9′-xanthene] has received great attention due to its unique structure and possesses wide applications in the field of material chemistry. Herein, we highlighted low-cost, stable and high-performance spiro[fluorene-9,9′-xanthene] derivatives for organic electronics.
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Current Status and Future Trend of Seawater Desalination on Membrane Technology and Biotechnology as Sustainable Green Desalination in the 21 st Century
Masaru Kurihara and Hiromu Takeuchi
General Chemistry    2022, 8 (1-2): 210016-210016.   DOI: 10.21127/yaoyigc20210016
Abstract171)      PDF (1686KB)(153)       Save
President Kennedy’s dream of obtaining fresh water from seawater seemed has been realized as a great scientific achievement. As Norihito Tambo predicted, seawater reverse osmosis desalination (SWRO) has become a major technology in Middle Eastern countries. SWRO requires less energy compared with the distillation method. Even Middle Eastern countries, where the distillation method is still a major technology, have started to adopt the RO method in new desalination plants in accordance with government policy and following the trend of developing larger (half mega-ton per day and larger) so-called Mega-SWRO plants. With these trends in the global market, the requirements of sustainable SWRO desalination as green desalination for the 21 st century are as follows: (1) conservation of energy resources: renewable energy, (2) innovation of desalination technologies: new advanced membrane and membrane systems, (3) reduction of marine pollution: green desalination. The government-supported Mega-ton water system project has been conducted to solve issues related to (2) and (3). The combination of a low pressure SWRO membrane and a low-pressure, two-stage, and high-recovery SWRO system, also referred to as a SWRO-PRO hybrid system, it has enabled 20% energy reduction and 30% energy saving in total. Likewise, low environmental impact as green desalination has established a reliable operation using less chemical and chemical cleaning. In terms of low-cost renewable energy, in particular, solar energy is now available to solve issues related to renewable energy. By combining these sophisticated technologies, desalinated water has become affordable at $ 0.50/m 3 or less (as low as $ 0.28/m 3). SWCC has announced their future plans for SWRO. The main topic is directed to brine mining to obtain precious materials from the brine of SWRO. This plan will be connected to water and green hydrogen for a sustainable future.
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Green Polymers toward Nanobiotechnology (II): Natural Polysaccharides and Their Derivatives towards Immunomodulation
Ruilong Sheng, Noora Barzkar, and Zhao Wang
General Chemistry    2022, 8 (1-2): 220001-220001.   DOI: 10.21127/yaoyigc20220001
Abstract145)      PDF (814KB)(93)       Save
Using renewable natural polymer resources to develop functional therapeutics and nanomedicine is a sustainable research area at the interface of multidisciplinary subjects such as green chemistry, polymer science and technology, nanobiomaterial and clinical medicine. It is disclosed that natural polysaccharides and their derivatives exhibited good biocompatibility, promising drug/gene delivery efficiency and immunomodulation capability, which have attracted tremendous attention in recent decades. This article reviewed up to date progresses of various natural polysaccharides and their derivatives as immunomodulators. The impact of molecular factors on immunomodulation-related features were stated, moreover, possible future outlooks on the natural polysaccharide-based immunomodulators were also discussed.
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Synthesis of Colloidal Carbon Quantum Dots
Hao Zhou, Shi-Huan Ren, Yuan-Ming Zhang, and Hai-Guang Zhao
General Chemistry    2021, 7 (4): 210012-210012.   DOI: 10.21127/yaoyigc20210012
Abstract107)      PDF (521KB)(154)       Save
Carbon quantum dots (C-dots) are emerging semiconductor nanomaterials consisting of earth-abundant C, O, and N elements. C-dots have many advantages such as high quantum yield, good photo- and chemical-stability, low-cost, low-toxicity and easy synthesis with earth-abundant precursors. In this minireview, we summarized and updated the most recent research works for the synthesis of the fluorescent and phosphorescent C-dots. In the end, we also give our owner views for the challenges and research directions for C-dots.
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Amination Utilizing N-Haloimides as Nitrogen Source
Hongbo Li, Bao-Yi Ren, and Fu-Shun Liang
General Chemistry    2021, 7 (4): 210015-210015.   DOI: 10.21127/yaoyigc20210015
Abstract105)      PDF (2071KB)(198)       Save
Conventionally, N-bromosuccinimide (NBS) is a brominating and oxidizing reagent in organic synthesis. In our research on N-haloimides in organic transformation, we proposed the concept of utilizing N-haloimides like NBS as an amination reagent, i.e., direct incorporation of imido unit to the target molecules to achieve amination, with the assistance of positive halogen(I). In this paper, we would like to summarize the amination of various fundamental substrates with N-haloimides as the amination reagents. We have developed an N-haloimide-DBU (Lewis base activator) combination system, which affords halogen bonding complex and subsequent ion pair intermediate via halogen transfer. All these reactions feature convenient and readily available reagents, mild conditions, simple execution, broad halogen scope, high efficiency and metal-free. The utilization of N-haloimides as versatile aminating reagents has been demonstrated and further application of the synthetic protocol for the preparation of bioactive and optical materials is expected.
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Sicilian Cannoli of Enhanced Stability
Antonino Scurria, Pietro Genco and Mario Pagliaro
General Chemistry    2021, 7 (4): 210014-210014.   DOI: 10.21127/yaoyigc20210014
Abstract78)      PDF (500KB)(117)       Save
Usually filled with a whey cheese-based sweet cream a few minutes before serving in order to prevent the moisture of the cream from softening the waffle and thus preserve its crispness, Sicilian cannoli are an ancient pastry of Sicily widely appreciated across the world. Another method to protect the “scorza” from quick softening is to coat the inner surface of the waffle with melt chocolate, altering the original taste of the pastry. We now report a simple method to stabilize Sicilian cannoli against moisture migration based on coating the inner layer of the waffle with a thin layer of pure glycerol.
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Contents: Gen. Chem. 4/2021
General Chemistry    2021, 7 (4): 0-0.  
Abstract61)      PDF (451KB)(43)       Save
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Carbon-Coupling Metallic Cobalt as Trifunctional Catalysis for Oxygen Reduction/Evolution and Hydrogen Evolution
Zihao Zhou, Kangdi Lin, Chenting Peng, Hongyun Huang, Yanli Wu, and Ming Sun
General Chemistry    2021, 7 (4): 210013-210013.   DOI: 10.21127/yaoyigc20210013
Abstract59)      PDF (1204KB)(132)       Save
The next-generation energy storage focuses on sustainability and renewability, facilitating the process of metal-air batteries and fuel cells. Nevertheless, their performances are suffering from the tardy development of the elaborate design and large-scale synthesis strategy of cost-efficient electrocatalysts. In this work, a convenient strategy for facile synthesizing electroactive material is proposed. As a result, a trifunctional Co/C catalyst is fabricated via a convenient calcination process, utilizing the pyrolysis of cobalt acetate and melamine. The prepared Co/C sample delivers a positive half-wave potential of 0.75 V in oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). Furthermore, the low overpotentials at 10 mA cm −2 are shown in alkaline conditions for oxygen evolution reaction (OER, 388 mV) and hydrogen evolution reaction (HER, 202 mV). The improved activity is mainly due to the interaction between Co and the in situ formed carbon carrier. The promising trifunctional activities endow the Co/C sample with a bright prospect in metal-air batteries and overall water splitting.
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Progress in Synthesis of Phthalide Compounds
Luohao Li, Runqing Zhu, Jing Li, Qianqian Sun, Huiqin Zheng, Feixiang Guo, and Lizhen Fang
General Chemistry    2022, 8 (1-2): 210017-210017.   DOI: 10.21127/yaoyigc20210017
Abstract33)      PDF (1236KB)(102)       Save
Phthalide is a common type of functional group in natural products and synthetic motifs, which has a structural feature containing a benzo five-membered lactone ring. Phthalide is also a popular pharmacophore in many bioactive natural products and clinical drugs. This review focuses on chemical synthesis methods of phthalides established in the past ten years.
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Coordination Assemblies Based on a Methylthio Carboxylic Ligand: Syntheses, Structures and Luminescent Properties
Jianming Li, Weiming Liao, and Jun He
General Chemistry    2022, 8 (1-2): 220004-220004.   DOI: 10.21127/yaoyigc20220004
Abstract23)      PDF (817KB)(67)       Save
Amphiphilic 4-(methylthio) benzoic acid (HMBA) combining soft methylthio and hard carboxylic groups was used to construct two isostructural coordination polymers of [Cu(MBA)] n ( CP- 1) and [Ag(MBA)] n ( CP-2), and one complex of Cu 2(MBA) 4(CH 3CN) 2·CH 3CN ( 3). This ditopic HMBA ligand realizes stable coordination of its carboxylic group with low-valent soft Cu + ion ( in-situ reduction from Cu 2+) under the assistance of methylthio groups, forming CPs of CP- 1 and CP- 2. Meanwhile, based on the theory of hard and soft acid and base (HSAB), harder Cu 2+ ions ( in-situ oxidation from Cu +) only coordinate to carboxylic groups, affording a paddle-wheel dinuclear complex 3. These two CPs were also taken for luminescent researches in solid state. CP-1 exhibits single-peak emission at 540 nm while CP-2 emits both at 499 and 528 nm with green luminescence. The emissions of CP-1 and CP-2 are both attributed to 3MLCT (triplet metal-to-ligand charge transfer) excitation state.
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Contents: Gen. Chem. 1-2/2022
General Chemistry    2022, 8 (1-2): 0-0.  
Abstract12)      PDF (411KB)(12)       Save
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