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Water Stability of Metal-Organic Framework HKUST-1
Angela Terracinaa, and Gianpiero Buscarino
General Chemistry    2021, 7 (4): 210002-210002.   DOI: 10.21127/yaoyigc20210002
Abstract376)      PDF (1141KB)(305)       Save
Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are a new class of crystalline porous materials, having wide pores which provide extremely high specific surface areas, larger than those typically observed in more common porous materials like zeolites or activated carbons. This peculiar property combined with the frequent presence of open-metal sites, makes them very promising for a broad range of applications, spacing from gas storage or separation, drug delivery, toxic air removal, chemical detectors, etc. However, the industrialization of MOFs is still facing difficulties because of their low stability to water or even air moisture, a substance difficult to avoid in applications like those mentioned. Another issue concerning MOF industrialization consists in the low bulk density of the micrometric powder grains, which typically constitute such materials. Unfortunately, their low mechanical stability seems to make difficult even to enhance the packaging by simple mechanical compaction. In this review, we will particularly focus on the current state of art involving the MOF HKUST-1, especially on the degradation process involved when this MOF interacts with water molecules. Furthermore, we will show the connection between water and mechanical stability, bringing to attention of a study where solid tablets of HKUST-1 powder have been realized without any loss of crystallinity or porosity because of an accurate study on the effects of different degree of hydration during the tableting phases. In addition, in order to highlight the causes of damages induced in the framework upon interaction with water, a comparison with other two copper carboxylate MOFs will be shown, namely STAM-1 and STAM-17-OEt, which differ from HKUST-1 uniquely for the organic ligands.
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Photocatalytic Degradation of Antibiotics and Dyes in Wastewater by Hydrogenated Black Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles Using Design of Experiment L9 Taguchi Orthogonal Array
Alma L. Valenzuela, Michael Green, and Xiaobo Chen
General Chemistry    2021, 7 (4): 210006-210006.   DOI: 10.21127/yaoyigc20210006
Abstract286)      PDF (1649KB)(129)       Save
Aqueous pollution from industrial dyes and antibiotics has brought up much threat to our daily healthy life. In the present work, hydrogenated black TiO 2 nanoparticles (H-TiO 2) are synthetized, their properties are studied, and their potentials in removing dyes (methylene blue, M.B.) and antibiotics such as tetracycline hydrochloride (TC) and ciprofloxacin (CIP) are explored with the support of statistical optimization. The operational controlled parameters such as catalyst amount (g L −1), pH and irradiation time (min) were optimized using Design of Experiment (DOE) L9 Taguchi Orthogonal Array. From Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) results, it can be seen that irradiation time is the most influencing parameter for % MB color removal, % Degradation of TC and CIP, over catalyst amount and pH. The optimal parameters found here are 0.50 g L −1 of hydrogenated H-TiO 2-750 as catalyst, pH 4 for MB, pH 11 for TC and pH 2 for CIP, respectively. In addition, an irradiation time of 30 min shows a maximum MB color removal of 95.05%, TC 94.8% and CIP 92.25%. Irradiation time is found to be the most influencing parameter (71.08% for MB, 55.33% for TC and 52.77% for CIP) followed by catalyst amount (28.82% for MB, 44.19% for TC and 41.5% for CIP) and in the end pH (0.09% for MB, 0.47% for TC and 5.72% for CIP). With the use of hydrogenated H-TiO 2-750, the dye and antibiotics degradation reaches almost 40% more than using TiO 2 pristine anatase.
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Organic NIR Photodetectors: Pushing Photodiodes Beyond 1000 nm
Seth C. Rasmussen, Spencer J. Gilman, Evan W. Culver, and Wyatt D. Wilcox
General Chemistry    2021, 7 (2): 200019-200019.   DOI: 10.21127/yaoyigc20200039
Abstract245)      PDF (998KB)(278)       Save
Advances in the synthesis of low bandgap (E g < 1.5 eV) conjugated polymers has produced organic materials capable of absorbing near-infrared (NIR) light (800—2500 nm), with these materials first applied to photodiode NIR detectors in 2007 as an alternative to more traditional inorganic devices. Although the development of organic NIR photodetectors has continued to advance, their ability to effectively detect wavelengths in the low-energy portion of the NIR spectrum is still limited. Efforts to date concerning the production of photo-diode-based devices capable of detecting light beyond 1000 nm are reviewed.
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Electrospinning as an Important Tool for Fabrication of Nanofibers for Advanced Applications—a Brief Review
Merin Sara Thomas, Prasanth K. S. Pillai, Scott C. Farrow, Laly A. Pothan and Sabu Thomas
General Chemistry    2021, 7 (3): 200022-200022.   DOI: 10.21127/yaoyigc20200022
Abstract241)      PDF (860KB)(158)       Save
Nanomaterials are attracting renewed interest due to their novel properties, which are not seen in their conventional micro state counterparts. They are used in advanced applications in the fields of catalysis, medicine, electronics, optics and membranes. Electrospinning is one of the simplest and cheapest methods to make nano-porous polymer membranes, and these offer a large surface area-to-volume ratio, high porosity and small pore size. These electrospun nonwoven mats could be employed in myriad applications ranging from filtration, sensors, electrode materials, drug delivery, cosmetics, and tissue scaffolding. This technique can introduce novel functional characteristics, and hence by changing the basic experimental set up, solvent, solution and polymer characteristics can alter the composition, morphology, and porosity of the processed material. The unique structural and functional characteristics inherited at submicron to nanoscale dimensions via electrospinning makes it an attractive technique for advanced industrial applications.
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Fullerene in Carbon Nanoring: A Saturn-Like Supramolecular Complex
Jie Zhang, Chunru Wang, and Taishan Wang
General Chemistry    2021, 7 (2): 200018-200018.   DOI: 10.21127/yaoyigc20200018
Abstract230)      PDF (810KB)(262)       Save
Fullerenes have attracted much attention because of their unique electronic structure and spherical cage shape. Specially, fullerenes have been widely used as guest in supramolecular chemistry due to their spherical structures. Recently, the supramolecular complexes of fullerenes and several types of carbon nanorings have been constructed and investigated. The complex of fullerene in carbon nanoring is like a Saturn, and this unique kind of supramolecular complexes will have potential applications in chemical, material and physical fields. In this review, various complexes of fullerene in carbon nanoring and their special properties are described. We hope to expand the application of these supramolecular complexes in various fields.
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The Enigmas of Surfaces
Abraham Marmur
General Chemistry    2021, 7 (2): 200021-200021.   DOI: 10.21127/yaoyigc20200021
Abstract220)      PDF (565KB)(172)       Save
The properties of surfaces are crucial for many processes in a variety of areas in biology, industry, and daily life. Surprisingly, even though surface phenomena have been studied for more than 200 years by some of the greatest physicists, mathematicians, and engineers, there are still quite a few enigmas to be solved. This paper presents some fundamental enigmas related to the surface tensions of liquids and solids that were either partially solved or yet mostly unsolved.
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Binder-Free Monoliths of Graphene Dried Foam Films Covering Polyaniline for Supercapacitors Electrode
Wufeng Chen, Junhao Chen, and Lifeng Yan
General Chemistry    2021, 7 (2): 200014-200014.   DOI: 10.21127/yaoyigc20200014
Abstract202)      PDF (920KB)(266)       Save
Dried foam films (DFF) of graphene oxide (GO) has been prepared by dipping a titanium mesh in the solution of GO, and then it was reduced by electrochemical method. Next, the as-prepared water-containing reduced grapheme oxide (rGO) DFF film works as electrode for electrocpolymerization of aniline onto its surface for preparing a polyaniline/graphene monolith while the titanium mesh acts as the electron collector. The as-obtained composite film is binder-free and has highly surface area, conductivity, and can be used for supercapacitor electrode. Then network of plenty polyaniline nanoparticles formed on the surface of rGO film by electrochemical polymerization, which works as the material for pseudocapacitance. When the film is used as a supercapacitor electrode, the maximum specific capacitance is as high as 633.4 F g −1 and the specific capacitance retains 75% of the initial after constant charge discharge 5000 cycles at current density of 10 A g −1, indicating that the nanocomposite is a suitable active material for supercapacitors.
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Chemical Reactions in Thermal Carbonization Processing of  Citric Acid-Urea Mixtures
Weixiong Liang, Ping Wang, Liju Yang, Christopher M. Overton, Brian Hewitt, Ya-Ping Sun
General Chemistry    2021, 7 (3): 210011-210011.   DOI: 10.21127/yaoyigc20210011
Abstract190)      PDF (1018KB)(199)       Save
Carbon dots are small carbon nanoparticles with effective surface passivation by mostly organic species. For such a simple and well-defined nanoscale structure, the classical and most reliable synthesis is the use of pre-existing small carbon nanoparticles for surface chemical functionalization with organic molecules. However, a more popular synthetic approach in the literature has been the “one-pot” carbonization of organic precursors, which with appropriate processing conditions could in principle create local structures in the resulting dot-like entities that may be comparable to the structural configuration in carbon dots, though the carbonization can also easily produce colored organic materials crosslinked into the sample structures. An extreme example was the thermal processing of the specific organic precursor mixtures including only citric acid with formamide or urea to yield samples of red/near-IR absorption and emission features, which prompted the claims of “red/near-IR carbon dots”. In reality, these spectral features have nothing to do with nanoscale carbon, let alone carbon dots, but simply associated with molecular dyes/chromophores produced in chemical reactions of the specific precursor mixtures under the thermal processing conditions intended for carbonization. In this work, the isolation and identification of the responsible molecular dyes/chromophores were pursued. The results present further evidence for the conclusion that the red/near-IR absorption and emission features have nothing to do with carbon dots.
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Thin Layer Chromatography as a Pilot Method for High Performance Liquid Chromatography to Analyze Sesquiterpenes in the Genus Lindera
Shuyu Xu, Siwei Wang, Hong Zhou, Jiamin Li, Xiaoqing Wu, Xin Chen, and Hezhong Jiang
General Chemistry    2021, 7 (3): 210003-210003.   DOI: 10.21127/yaoyigc20210003
Abstract176)      PDF (565KB)(105)       Save
In this paper, we developed and validated a simple and accurate thin layer chromatography method for the analysis of the chemical components in the plants of genus Lindera (the Lauraceae family). High performance liquid chromatography method was used to verify the results of thin layer chromatography analysis.
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Progress in  D−A−D-type Small  Molecule  Hole-Transport Materials  for Perovskite Solar Cells
Yajie Fu, Muhammad Sohail, Aaqib Khurshid, Derong Cao
General Chemistry    2021, 7 (4): 210009-210009.   DOI: 10.21127/yaoyigc20210009
Abstract172)      PDF (1315KB)(178)       Save
As one of the key  components of perovskite solar cells (PSCs), hole transport materials (HTMs)  effectively improve the performance and stability of the devices and greatly promote the development of PSCs. At present, due to the advantages of flexible structure design, simple synthesis, low-cost and abundant raw materials, organic  small molecule HTMs have been studied extensively by researchers. Among them, small molecule HTMs  with donor–acceptor (D –A) type structures for PSCs have received great attention in the last few years because of their high hole mobility due to strong dipolar intermolecular interactions,  minimizing ohmic losses of the contact, good stability, and high solubility. In this review, we mainly introduce some representative  D−A−D-type  small molecule HTMs, summarize and comment on their properties, and discuss the relationship between molecular structure and performance parameters of devices. Finally, based on the current research, the future design of new efficient HTMs is prospected.
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Crosslinked Polymer Nanoassemblies and Their Delivery Applications
Zhao Wang, Filipe Olim, Ana Rute Neves, Mariana Vieira, Jingjing Sun, Helena Tomás, and Ruilong Sheng
General Chemistry    2021, 7 (3): 210007-210007.   DOI: 10.21127/yaoyigc20210007
Abstract158)      PDF (690KB)(93)       Save
Chemical crosslinking technology was rapidly developed and utilized to prepare structurally fixed, stabilized and functionalized polymer nanoassemblies and nanoarchitectures by covalently reinforcing the interactions between the polymer chains. This perspective reviewed recent advances on the crosslinked polymer nanoassemblies and their applications, mainly in drug delivery. Moreover, possible future research outlooks in the field of Shell-crosslinked polymer nanoassemblies were also stated and discussed.
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More Than Spirobifluorene: Low-Cost, Stable and High-Performance  Spiro[ f luorene-9,9′-xanthene] Derivatives for Organic Electronics
Maoxuan Sun, Bao-Yi Ren, Ling-Hai Xie
General Chemistry    2021, 7 (4): 210001-210001.   DOI: 10.21127/yaoyigc20210001
Abstract157)      PDF (496KB)(112)       Save
Spiro[fluorene-9,9′-xanthene] has received great attention due to its unique structure and possesses wide applications in the field of material chemistry. Herein, we highlighted low-cost, stable and high-performance spiro[fluorene-9,9′-xanthene] derivatives for organic electronics.
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Meyer-Schuster Rearrangement—Convenient Synthesis of α,β-Unsaturated α-Iodinated Aldehydes and Ketones
Juri M. Timonen, Petri A. Turhanen
General Chemistry    2021, 7 (2): 200023-200023.   DOI: 10.21127/yaoyigc20200023
Abstract148)      PDF (596KB)(193)       Save
The Meyer-Schuster rearrangement reaction has been known for almost a hundred years. It has been used to prepare unsaturated aldehydes, ketones, and even esters from propargyl alcohols. Thirty years ago, the same reaction was found to produce also α-halogenated aldehydes and ketones under suitable conditions. In the last thirty years, several methods have been developed utilizing the Meyer-Schuster rearrangement in the synthesis of halogenated building blocks for use in synthetic chemistry. In this perspective, we describe the progress in the field.
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A Minireview on Chemical Constituents and Bio a ctivities   of Lindera glauca
Si-Wei Wang, Ji-Min Liu, Qing-Tian Gao, Ji-Song Mo, Xing Wang, Xin Chen, and He-Zhong Jiang
General Chemistry    2021, 7 (3): 210005-210005.   DOI: 10.21127/yaoyigc20210005
Abstract86)      PDF (935KB)(97)       Save
Lindera glauca  (Sieb. et Zucc.) Bl is Chinese herbal medicine known as Niujin tree or Leigongzi. Alkaloids, flavonoids, terpenes, volatile oils,  etc ., are found in  L. glauca,  exhibiting some pharmacological activities such as anti-bacterial, anti-influenza virus, anti-fungal, antioxidant activities, an effect on bronchial and intestinal smooth muscle, and so on. Herein, we summarized chemical compositions and physiological activities  of  L. glauca  for future research.
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Simple and Efficient Eco-Friendly Multigram Procedure for Preparation of Piperazine Hydrochloride, an Important Building Block in Medicinal Chemistry
Cristiane F. da Costa, Marcus Vinicius N. de Souza, Victor Facchinetti, and Claudia Regina B. Gomes
General Chemistry    2021, 7 (3): 210004-210004.   DOI: 10.21127/yaoyigc20210004
Abstract79)      PDF (675KB)(159)       Save
This work describes the synthesis of piperazine hydrochloride in multigram scale and high yields with promising industrial applications. This methodology is simple, fast, safe, low cost, and applicable to the synthesis of a wide variety of piperazine derivatives, being very useful in medicinal chemistry and other fields.
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Amination Utilizing N-Haloimides as Nitrogen Source
Hongbo Li, Bao-Yi Ren, and Fu-Shun Liang
General Chemistry    2021, 7 (4): 210015-210015.   DOI: 10.21127/yaoyigc20210015
Abstract72)      PDF (2071KB)(95)       Save
Conventionally, N-bromosuccinimide (NBS) is a brominating and oxidizing reagent in organic synthesis. In our research on N-haloimides in organic transformation, we proposed the concept of utilizing N-haloimides like NBS as an amination reagent, i.e., direct incorporation of imido unit to the target molecules to achieve amination, with the assistance of positive halogen(I). In this paper, we would like to summarize the amination of various fundamental substrates with N-haloimides as the amination reagents. We have developed an N-haloimide-DBU (Lewis base activator) combination system, which affords halogen bonding complex and subsequent ion pair intermediate via halogen transfer. All these reactions feature convenient and readily available reagents, mild conditions, simple execution, broad halogen scope, high efficiency and metal-free. The utilization of N-haloimides as versatile aminating reagents has been demonstrated and further application of the synthetic protocol for the preparation of bioactive and optical materials is expected.
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Synthesis of Colloidal Carbon Quantum Dots
Hao Zhou, Shi-Huan Ren, Yuan-Ming Zhang, and Hai-Guang Zhao
General Chemistry    2021, 7 (4): 210012-210012.   DOI: 10.21127/yaoyigc20210012
Abstract69)      PDF (521KB)(116)       Save
Carbon quantum dots (C-dots) are emerging semiconductor nanomaterials consisting of earth-abundant C, O, and N elements. C-dots have many advantages such as high quantum yield, good photo- and chemical-stability, low-cost, low-toxicity and easy synthesis with earth-abundant precursors. In this minireview, we summarized and updated the most recent research works for the synthesis of the fluorescent and phosphorescent C-dots. In the end, we also give our owner views for the challenges and research directions for C-dots.
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Contents: Gen. Chem. 4/2021
General Chemistry    2021, 7 (4): 0-0.  
Abstract45)      PDF (451KB)(34)       Save
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Sicilian Cannoli of Enhanced Stability
Antonino Scurria, Pietro Genco and Mario Pagliaro
General Chemistry    2021, 7 (4): 210014-210014.   DOI: 10.21127/yaoyigc20210014
Abstract45)      PDF (500KB)(80)       Save
Usually filled with a whey cheese-based sweet cream a few minutes before serving in order to prevent the moisture of the cream from softening the waffle and thus preserve its crispness, Sicilian cannoli are an ancient pastry of Sicily widely appreciated across the world. Another method to protect the “scorza” from quick softening is to coat the inner surface of the waffle with melt chocolate, altering the original taste of the pastry. We now report a simple method to stabilize Sicilian cannoli against moisture migration based on coating the inner layer of the waffle with a thin layer of pure glycerol.
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Contents: Gen. Chem. 3/2021
General Chemistry    2021, 7 (3): 0-0.  
Abstract35)      PDF (465KB)(16)       Save
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Contents: Gen. Chem. 2/2021
General Chemistry    2021, 7 (2): 0-0.  
Abstract35)      PDF (333KB)(18)       Save
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Carbon-Coupling Metallic Cobalt as Trifunctional Catalysis for Oxygen Reduction/Evolution and Hydrogen Evolution
Zihao Zhou, Kangdi Lin, Chenting Peng, Hongyun Huang, Yanli Wu, and Ming Sun
General Chemistry    2021, 7 (4): 210013-210013.   DOI: 10.21127/yaoyigc20210013
Abstract25)      PDF (1204KB)(66)       Save
The next-generation energy storage focuses on sustainability and renewability, facilitating the process of metal-air batteries and fuel cells. Nevertheless, their performances are suffering from the tardy development of the elaborate design and large-scale synthesis strategy of cost-efficient electrocatalysts. In this work, a convenient strategy for facile synthesizing electroactive material is proposed. As a result, a trifunctional Co/C catalyst is fabricated via a convenient calcination process, utilizing the pyrolysis of cobalt acetate and melamine. The prepared Co/C sample delivers a positive half-wave potential of 0.75 V in oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). Furthermore, the low overpotentials at 10 mA cm −2 are shown in alkaline conditions for oxygen evolution reaction (OER, 388 mV) and hydrogen evolution reaction (HER, 202 mV). The improved activity is mainly due to the interaction between Co and the in situ formed carbon carrier. The promising trifunctional activities endow the Co/C sample with a bright prospect in metal-air batteries and overall water splitting.
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Corrigendum to “Effect of Surface Modified Fullerene C70 on the ROS Production and Cellular Integrity Using Chinese Hamster Ovarian Cells” (Gen. Chem. 2020, 6, 190022)
S. Anju, J. Ashtami, P. V. Mohanan
General Chemistry    2021, 7 (3): 210010-210010.   DOI: 10.21127/yaoyigc20190022
Abstract20)      PDF (669KB)(21)       Save
The authors regret the unnoticed error occurred during the data transmission process while preparing the manuscript. We inadvertently included wrong set of images in Figure 1(A), Figure 3(A&D), Figure 4(A) and Figure 5(A&D) panels of original manuscript. The corrected figure panels are provided below. 
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