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Current Status and Future Trend of Seawater Desalination on Membrane Technology and Biotechnology as Sustainable Green Desalination in the 21 st Century
Masaru Kurihara and Hiromu Takeuchi
General Chemistry    2022, 8 (1-2): 210016-210016.   DOI: 10.21127/yaoyigc20210016
Abstract297)      PDF (1686KB)(267)       Save
President Kennedy’s dream of obtaining fresh water from seawater seemed has been realized as a great scientific achievement. As Norihito Tambo predicted, seawater reverse osmosis desalination (SWRO) has become a major technology in Middle Eastern countries. SWRO requires less energy compared with the distillation method. Even Middle Eastern countries, where the distillation method is still a major technology, have started to adopt the RO method in new desalination plants in accordance with government policy and following the trend of developing larger (half mega-ton per day and larger) so-called Mega-SWRO plants. With these trends in the global market, the requirements of sustainable SWRO desalination as green desalination for the 21 st century are as follows: (1) conservation of energy resources: renewable energy, (2) innovation of desalination technologies: new advanced membrane and membrane systems, (3) reduction of marine pollution: green desalination. The government-supported Mega-ton water system project has been conducted to solve issues related to (2) and (3). The combination of a low pressure SWRO membrane and a low-pressure, two-stage, and high-recovery SWRO system, also referred to as a SWRO-PRO hybrid system, it has enabled 20% energy reduction and 30% energy saving in total. Likewise, low environmental impact as green desalination has established a reliable operation using less chemical and chemical cleaning. In terms of low-cost renewable energy, in particular, solar energy is now available to solve issues related to renewable energy. By combining these sophisticated technologies, desalinated water has become affordable at $ 0.50/m 3 or less (as low as $ 0.28/m 3). SWCC has announced their future plans for SWRO. The main topic is directed to brine mining to obtain precious materials from the brine of SWRO. This plan will be connected to water and green hydrogen for a sustainable future.
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Hydrogen Spillover in Electrochemical Hydrogen Evolution Reaction
Ziyao Chen, Huai Qin Fu, Mengyang Dong, Yu Zou, Porun Liu, Huijun Zhao
General Chemistry    2022, 8 (3-4): 220007-220007.   DOI: 10.21127/yaoyigc20220007
Abstract285)      PDF (769KB)(246)       Save
The dissociative chemisorption and energetically driven migration of atomic hydrogen on heterogenous electrocatalysts, i.e., hydrogen spillovers, which occur during electrochemical turnovers, have been intensively investigated recently on high-performance electrocatalysts for hydrogen evolution reaction. The elucidation of the hydrogen spillover not only reshapes the mechanistic understanding of the catalytic landscape but also aids in formulating efficient reaction pathways for catalyst designs. This perspective hence concisely summarizes the status of research on the hydrogen spillover effect in recent years, as well as the experimental methods to characterize the hydrogen spillover process and presents a prospect for future research direction.
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Steric Hindrance Functionalized Porphyrins as Charge Trapping Elements for Organic Field Effect Transistor Memory
Meng Xie, Linyi Bian, Hao Chong, Zhewei Zhang, Guangyi Liu, and Linghai Xie
General Chemistry    2022, 8 (3-4): 220006-220006.   DOI: 10.21127/yaoyigc20220006
Abstract276)      PDF (1162KB)(77)       Save
Two novel fluorenyl-porphyrins 2Flu-TPP and 4Flu-TPP serving as charge trapping elements are designed and synthesized through BF 3.Et 2O catalyzed Friedel-Crafts reaction. With steric hindrance building blocks of fluorene units, 2Flu-TPP and 4Flu-TPP present highly nonplanar 3-dimensional structure, which could effectively inhibit molecular packing and intermolecular arrangement of porphyrins. As charge trapping elements, porphyrin groups provide the hole trapping sites, while fluorene units act as a hole blocking group to reduce the formation of leakage current paths. The pentacene-based organic field effect transistor memory devices based on 2Flu-TPP and 4Flu-TPP show memory windows of 48.93 and 49.20 V, respectively. The 2Flu-TPP device shows reliable endurance property with a large ON/OFF current ratio (1.1×10 7) and good charge retention time (2.41×10 5 after 2×10 3 s). This study suggests that porphyrin based steric hindrance small molecular elements have great promise for high-performance organic field effect transistor memory.
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Green Polymers toward Nanobiotechnology (II): Natural Polysaccharides and Their Derivatives towards Immunomodulation
Ruilong Sheng, Noora Barzkar, and Zhao Wang
General Chemistry    2022, 8 (1-2): 220001-220001.   DOI: 10.21127/yaoyigc20220001
Abstract218)      PDF (814KB)(158)       Save
Using renewable natural polymer resources to develop functional therapeutics and nanomedicine is a sustainable research area at the interface of multidisciplinary subjects such as green chemistry, polymer science and technology, nanobiomaterial and clinical medicine. It is disclosed that natural polysaccharides and their derivatives exhibited good biocompatibility, promising drug/gene delivery efficiency and immunomodulation capability, which have attracted tremendous attention in recent decades. This article reviewed up to date progresses of various natural polysaccharides and their derivatives as immunomodulators. The impact of molecular factors on immunomodulation-related features were stated, moreover, possible future outlooks on the natural polysaccharide-based immunomodulators were also discussed.
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Halogen Bonding Promotes Purely Organic Room-Temperature Phosphorescence
Kuo Liu, Bao-Yi Ren and Fu-Shun Liang
General Chemistry    2022, 8 (3-4): 220005-220005.   DOI: 10.21127/yaoyigc20220005
Abstract142)      PDF (919KB)(101)       Save
Purely organic room-temperature phosphorescence (RTP) materials are promising candidates for high-tech applications. Herein, we highlight new development that promotes RTP emission of organic small molecules, high phosphorescent efficiency and long lifetime, via inter/intro-molecular halogen bonding.
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Coordination Assemblies Based on a Methylthio Carboxylic Ligand: Syntheses, Structures and Luminescent Properties
Jianming Li, Weiming Liao, and Jun He
General Chemistry    2022, 8 (1-2): 220004-220004.   DOI: 10.21127/yaoyigc20220004
Abstract87)      PDF (817KB)(121)       Save
Amphiphilic 4-(methylthio) benzoic acid (HMBA) combining soft methylthio and hard carboxylic groups was used to construct two isostructural coordination polymers of [Cu(MBA)] n ( CP- 1) and [Ag(MBA)] n ( CP-2), and one complex of Cu 2(MBA) 4(CH 3CN) 2·CH 3CN ( 3). This ditopic HMBA ligand realizes stable coordination of its carboxylic group with low-valent soft Cu + ion ( in-situ reduction from Cu 2+) under the assistance of methylthio groups, forming CPs of CP- 1 and CP- 2. Meanwhile, based on the theory of hard and soft acid and base (HSAB), harder Cu 2+ ions ( in-situ oxidation from Cu +) only coordinate to carboxylic groups, affording a paddle-wheel dinuclear complex 3. These two CPs were also taken for luminescent researches in solid state. CP-1 exhibits single-peak emission at 540 nm while CP-2 emits both at 499 and 528 nm with green luminescence. The emissions of CP-1 and CP-2 are both attributed to 3MLCT (triplet metal-to-ligand charge transfer) excitation state.
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Progress in Synthesis of Phthalide Compounds
Luohao Li, Runqing Zhu, Jing Li, Qianqian Sun, Huiqin Zheng, Feixiang Guo, and Lizhen Fang
General Chemistry    2022, 8 (1-2): 210017-210017.   DOI: 10.21127/yaoyigc20210017
Abstract76)      PDF (1236KB)(144)       Save
Phthalide is a common type of functional group in natural products and synthetic motifs, which has a structural feature containing a benzo five-membered lactone ring. Phthalide is also a popular pharmacophore in many bioactive natural products and clinical drugs. This review focuses on chemical synthesis methods of phthalides established in the past ten years.
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Synthesis of Regioselective Carbohydrates Building Blocks by Heterogeneous Engineered Biocatalysts
Jose M. Palomo
General Chemistry    2022, 8 (3-4): 220009-220009.   DOI: 10.21127/yaoyigc20220009
Abstract73)      PDF (924KB)(56)       Save
Regioselective synthesis of carbohydrate building blocks by the application of biocatalytic approaches represents a convenient and sustainable way for the production of pharmaceuticals. The enormous potential of enzymes for the transformation of synthetic chemicals with high regioselectivity is on increasing awareness. This perspective focuses on showing some of the advances on the use of lipases engineering as immobilized catalyst for regioselective deprotection processes for potential industrial production glycoderivatives building blocks.
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Contents: Gen. Chem. 1-2/2022
General Chemistry    2022, 8 (1-2): 0-0.  
Abstract35)      PDF (411KB)(32)       Save
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Contents: Gen. Chem. 3-4/2022
General Chemistry    2022, 8 (3-4): 0-0.  
Abstract23)      PDF (336KB)(14)       Save
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