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Recent Advances in Graphene Lithium-Ion Batteries
Ruihua Guo and Wenhui Wu
General Chemistry    2016, 2 (2): 66-83.   DOI: 10.21127/yaoyigc20160002
Abstract2136)   HTML309)    PDF (2136KB)(2433)       Save

In this paper, the most recent advances in graphene lithium-ion batteries were summarized. Graphene-based anode and cathode materials for lithium-ion batteries were described in details, and the prospect of graphene lithium-ion batteries was also discussed.

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Growth of Transition Metal Dichalcogenides and Directly Modulating Their Properties by Chemical Vapor Deposition
Lei Tong, Tiande Liu, Renli Liang, Shuai Wang, Jingwen Chen, Jiangnan Dai, Lei Ye
General Chemistry    2017, 3 (4): 182-193.   DOI: 10.21127/yaoyigc20170014
Abstract1738)   HTML118)    PDF (1664KB)(1365)       Save

The layered structure of transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) gives rise to many novel properties for functional applications in a wide range of fields. However, successful synthesis of TMDs and directly modulating properties of TMDs during the growth process are facing great challenges, which limits their future practical applications. In this review, we focus on current state of the art chemical vapor deposition (CVD) synthesis of TMDs alloys, convenient methods to modulate properties of TMDs by CVD. Then, TMDs-based lateral and vertical heterostructures utilizing CVD methods are reviewed. Finally, we summarize patterned growth of TMDs briefly.

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Cited: Baidu(1)
Conjugated Polymers for NIR-I and NIR-II Imaging
Ye Liu, Jun Yuan, Věra Cimrová, Yingping Zou
General Chemistry    2018, 4 (1): 170021-170021.   DOI: 10.21127/yaoyigc20170021
Abstract1285)   HTML61)    PDF (244KB)(586)       Save

In vivo biological imaging in first near-infrared window (NIR-I, 700-900 nm) and the second near-infrared window (NIR-II, 1000-1700 nm) using conjugated polymers have recently attracted great interest. Compared with imaging in visible region (400-700 nm), NIR bioimaging can provide deeper tissue penetration and higher spatial resolution due to fewer scattering of longer-wavelength photons. Moreover, most of NIR-I and NIR-II conjugated copolymers have been reported with tunable excitation and emission of fluorophores through modification of their donor-acceptor structures. In this minireview, we focus on the recent advances on chemical synthesis of conjugated polymers and their biological imaging in NIR-I and NIR-II windows.

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Research on Photocatalytic Degradation of Methyl Orange by a β-Cyclodextrin/Titanium Dioxide Composite
Shuting Lu, Nan Sun, Ting Wang
General Chemistry    2017, 3 (3): 164-169.   DOI: 10.21127/yaoyigc20170007
Abstract1099)   HTML64)    PDF (578KB)(741)       Save

A photocatalytic composite of β-cyclodextrin/titanium dioxide (β-CD/TiO2) was synthesized via the photoinduced assembly method in this work. The morphology of the composite was characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), respectively. The chemical composition was detected by fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). By means of phenolphthalein probe technique and back titration method, the contents of active β-CD (2.0%) and TiO2 (0.0971±0.0006 g/0.1 g) in the prepared β-CD/TiO2 composite were obtained. In order to investigate deeply the role of β-CD in TiO2 photocatalytic system, 100 mL of 0.1 mmol L-1 methyl orange (MO) aqueous solution was used as the organic pollutant, the photocatalytic activity of β-CD/TiO2 and pure TiO2 were assessed under the same conditions. The results showed that the degradation time of β-CD/TiO2 was 43% shorter than that degraded by the aqueous solution containing only TiO2. β-CD/TiO2 demonstrated a better photocatalytic activity. The kinetics of photocatalytic degradation of MO by β-CD/TiO2 and pure TiO2 was studied. In addition, the degradation efficiency of MO by β-CD/TiO2 was still above 85% after recycling for 5 times.

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Tailoring Iron Oxide Nanostructures for High-Capacity Lithium Storage
Yao Yao, Jiantao Li, Qinyou An, Liqiang Mai, Liang Zhou
General Chemistry    2017, 3 (4): 172-181.   DOI: 10.21127/yaoyigc20170017
Abstract1081)   HTML48)    PDF (1570KB)(530)       Save

Iron oxides, such as hematite (α-Fe2O3), maghemite (γ-Fe2O3), and magnetite (Fe3O4), have been considered as alternative anode materials for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) due to their high theoretical capacity, abundant reserves, low cost, and non-toxicity. However, their practical application has been hampered by the large volume expansion, which leads to rapid capacity fading. Nanostructure engineering has been demonstrated to be an effective avenue in tackling the volume variation issue and boosting the electrochemical performances. Herein, recent advances on nanostructure engineering of iron oxides for lithium storage are summarized. These nanostructures include 0D nanoparticles, 1D nanowires/nanorods/ nanofibers/nanotubes, 2D nanoflakes/nanosheets, as well as 3D porous/hollow/hierarchical architectures. The structure- electrochemical performance correlations are also discussed. It is believed that the performance optimization strategies summarized here might be extended to other high-capacity LIB anode materials.

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Cited: Baidu(2)
Metal-Organic Frameworks for Mercury Sensing and Removal
Xuan Wang, Jillian N Manikoff
General Chemistry    2018, 4 (3): 180003-180003.   DOI: 10.21127/yaoyigc20180003
Abstract1030)   HTML73)    PDF (349KB)(883)       Save

Removal of mercury contaminants from nature receives a global attention from a biological and environmental standpoint. Recently, metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) show much promises in the adsorptive removal of mercury species. This review summarizes the recent studies on the MOF-based materials for mercury sensing and removal. The design of those materials are listed in five categories—use of unfunctionalized MOFs, linker design of MOFs, modification of MOF system, post-synthetic modification of the frameworks, and development of MOF-based composites. Finally, several key learning points are discussed in the aim of a facilitating new design of MOF-based sensors and adsorbents for mercury.

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A Hyaluronic Acid-Chitosan-Gadolinium Nanosphere for Specific Tumor-Targeted MRI Contrast Agent
Yu Qiao, Jiejun Cheng, Guangyu Wu, Qing Lu, Fan Yi, Jianrong Xu, Jun Zhu, Dannong He
General Chemistry    2015, 1 (1): 15-21.   DOI: 10.21127/yaoyigc20150004
Abstract1028)   HTML143)    PDF (291KB)(758)       Save
A hyaluronic acid-chitosan-gadolinium ( HA-CTS-Gd) nanosphere is prepared by HA modified CTS nanosphere and the complexation between Gd ions and functional groups in CTS and HA molecule. The nanosphere is used as a novel magnetic resonance imaging ( MRI) contrast agent for targeting specific tumor. The results show that the HA-CTS-Gd nanosphere is stable in physiological environment due to the strong Gd chelating interaction between the abundant functional groups in HA and chitosan molecules, which leads to low toxicity. Moreover, the obtained nanosphere reveals a high CD44 targeting efficiency and relaxation efficiency in vitro, and it has a great agency for human colonic and mouse lymphatic tumor MRI in vivo. Thus, the novel MRI contrast agent can be taken up selectively by CD44 antigen and used as a potential MRI contrast agents in specific tumor.
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NiCo 2S 4-Based Materials for Electrochemical Applications
Ming Sun, Jinjin Tie, Yao Li, Lin Yu
General Chemistry    2017, 3 (4): 202-206.   DOI: 10.21127/yaoyigc20170015
Abstract1000)   HTML81)    PDF (273KB)(1132)       Save

NiCo2S4 has attracted worldwide attention in the field of energy storage/conversion. In this paper, we summarize the up-to-date progress on the preparation strategies, the applications as electrode materials for supercapacitors, lithium-ion batteries and dye sensitized solar cells, as well as electrocatalysts for the hydrogen evolution reaction, oxygen reduction reaction and oxygen evolution reaction. We also discuss the strategies to improve the electrochemical performance, and future trends of the NiCo2S4-based materials.

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Spirofluorene-Based Blue Phosphorescent Organic Light-Emitting Diode with Improved Efficiency Using Co-Host Structure
Mingli Sun, Yuqiao Guan, Bin Liu, Shufen Chen, Yang Zhang, Hongtao Cao, Linghai Xie, Yan Qian, Wei Huang
General Chemistry    2015, 1 (1): 3-7.   DOI: 10.21127/yaoyigc20150003
Abstract995)   HTML166)    PDF (498KB)(1410)       Save

Highly efficient blue phosphorescent organic light-emitting diode (OLED) is achieved by using a blend of biphenyl (spiro[fluorene-9,9'-xanthen]-2-yl) phosphine oxide (SFX2PO) and various of hole- or electron-transporting materials such as di-[4-(N,N-di-p-tolyl-amino)-phenyl]cyclohexane (TAPC), 2,2',2"-(1,3,5-benzinetriyl)-tris(1- phenyl-1-H-benzimidazole) (TPBi) and 4,4',4"-tris(carbazol-9-yl)triphenylamine (TCTA). The results show that TCTA and SFX2PO can partially form exciplex and have better charge carrier balance performance. The driving voltage and efficiency are improved in a multi-player device with TCTA and SFX2PO as the co-host. The device shows a maximum current efficiency of 22.75 cd•A–1, which is nearly two folds over the device using SFX2PO or phosphine oxide spirobifluorene derivative (SPPO1) as a single host.

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Advancing Electrolytes Towards Stable Organic Batteries
Yanliang Liang, Yan Yao
General Chemistry    2017, 3 (4): 207-212.   DOI: 10.21127/yaoyigc20170016
Abstract991)   HTML68)    PDF (730KB)(836)       Save

Organic electrode materials offer virtually infinite resource availability, cost advantages, and some of the highest specific energy for batteries to satisfy the demand for large-scale energy storage. Among the biggest challenges for the practical applications of batteries based on organic electrodes is the dissolution of organic active materials into the electrolyte, which leads to underwhelming cycling stability. This minireview provides an overview of electrolyte advancements to improve the stability of organic batteries. Research efforts on the control of solvent polarity, electrolyte mobility, and exploration of novel electrolyte systems are highlighted.

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Degree of Conversion, Bond Strength and Biocompatibility of the APTES@SiO 2 Strengthened Experimental Dental Adhesive
Bin Zhang, Juan Zhou, Peicheng Xu, Ziyuan Zhu, Jun Zhu, Wenhao Qian, Dannong He
General Chemistry    2016, 2 (1): 55-63.   DOI: 10.21127/yaoyigc20150006
Abstract948)   HTML160)    PDF (1238KB)(2063)       Save

The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of incorporation of the nano silica modified with (3-aminopropyl)triethoxysilane (APTES@SiO2) on the degree of conversion, bond strength and biocompatibility of an experimental dental adhesive. An amphiphilic bonding system was used as the experimental dentin bonding system. The APTES@SiO2 with diameter of 70 nm was prepared and added into the experimental dentin bonding system as nanofiller, and the effect of the modification on the stability of the nano APTES@SiO2 dispersed in the experimental adhesive was studied. In addition, the morphology, degree of conversion, bond strength to dental restorative resin and biocompatibility of the experimental adhesives containing nanofiller were tested. After modification, the dispersion stability of the nano particles in the adhesive was improved. With increasing the content of the nano APTES@SiO2, the rate of light conversion increased significantly. However, the ultimate degree of conversion, bond strength to resin and bulk compressive strength was not significantly affected. Compared with the adhesive without nanofiller, the adhesive with 2 wt% APTES@SiO2 showed better bond strength to dentin and lower polymerization shrinkage. In addition, the experimental adhesive showed slight cytotoxicity with the incorporation of APTES@SiO2, but it was attenuated at low concentration.

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Application of Nano-TiO 2 in Cosmetics
Yiwen Fang, Xupeng Lu, Wenbin Chen
General Chemistry    2017, 3 (2): 125-129.   DOI: 10.21127/yaoyigc20160007
Abstract892)   HTML89)    PDF (292KB)(1487)       Save

As an inorganic sunscreen material, nano-titanium dioxide (nano-TiO2) owns broad prospects in sunscreen cosmetics for its small size, non-toxicity, strong covering ability, UV absorption and scattering abilities, etc. Nano-TiO2 has high photocatalytic activity, so it will go through a series of complex chemical reactions under light irradiation and cause damage to its surrounding agents. In addition, it is hard to disperse in various aqueous and non-aqueous mediums due to its high surface energy and hydrophobic property. In order to apply nano-TiO2 to cosmetics effectively and safely, its surface modification is necessary. This paper reviews nano-TiO2’s preparation, modification, and its application in sunscreen cosmetics.

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Enhanced Photocatalytic Performance of ZnO through Coupling with Carbon Materials
Kezhen Qi, Hanshu Qi, Yubo Xie, Yan Wang
General Chemistry    2017, 3 (1): 113-117.   DOI: 10.21127/yaoyigc20160008
Abstract887)   HTML100)    PDF (1303KB)(1043)       Save

Photocatalytic degradation of organic pollutants is an effective way to overcome environmental pollution. During the past few years, carbon materials have demonstrated great potential to improve photocatalytic performance of ZnO nanomaterials. This review will comment on recent developments of carbon materials (including fullerene, carbon nanotube, and graphene) coupling to improve photocatalytic performance of ZnO for photodegradatation of organic pollutants. The effects of carbon materials on enhancing photocatalytic performance of ZnO include enhancing structure stability, increasing amounts of active sites of pollutant adsorption, boosting electron acceptor formation and transport, enhancing photosensitization, narrowing band gap, etc. Moreover, basic mechanisms how carbon materials enhance photocatalytic activity of ZnO materials are discussed according to the interaction between ZnO and carbon materials. Finally, concluding remarks and current challenges are highlighted with perspectives for future developments of ZnO-based carbon photocatalysts. This review aims at recent research advances on ZnO-based carbon photocatalysts developed for photocatalysis of organic contaminant degradation.

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Preparation of Perfluorocarbon Emul-sion and Its Application in Cells Re-oxygenation
Zhengfeng Wen, Rui Liu, Fan Yi, Yanjie Yao, Jun Guan, Dannong He, Jun Zhu, Zhaofen Lin
General Chemistry    2016, 2 (1): 38-43.   DOI: 10.21127/yaoyigc.20150019
Abstract862)   HTML151)    PDF (829KB)(717)       Save

Perfluorotripropylamine (FC-3283), a kind of perfluorocarbon as oxygen carrier, is encapsulated in a copolymer using polyethylene glycol (PEG) to modify poly lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) to prepare a PLGA-PEG/FC-3283 emulsion for highly efficient reoxygenation to cell. 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR) spectra, Fourier transform infrared spectrum (FT-IR), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), dynamic light scattering (DLS) and high performance ion chromatography proved the formation of the PLGA-PEG and PLGA-PEG/FC-3283 emulsion. High performance ion chromatography revealed that FC-3283 content in the emulsion is 9.4%. Furthermore, CCK-8 assay was used to detect the cytotoxicity of the PLGA-PEG/FC-3283 emulsion to HCT 116 cells. Finally, the ability of oxygen supply and release of PLGA-PEG/FC-3283 emulsion was evaluated by CCK-8 asssy and fluorophotometry based on establishing hypoxia/reoxygenation model of HCT 116 cells with liquid paraffin. By detecting the cells increment rate and the content changes of reactive oxygen species (ROS) before and after reoxygenation, we explored the oxygen carry and release ability of PLGA-PEG/FC-3283 emulsion. The results showed that the cell viability increased significantly through PLGA-PEG/FC-3283 emulsion administration after the cells were treated with hypoxia.

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Progress in Graphene-Based Electrochemical Biosensors for Cancer Diagnosis
Ruihua Guo and Wenhui Wu
General Chemistry    2016, 2 (3): 89-96.   DOI: 10.21127/yaoyigc20160006
Abstract844)   HTML160)    PDF (1236KB)(824)       Save

Cancer is one of the leading causes of death worldwide, so early cancer diagnosis is of great significance for successful treatment of cancer. This paper reviews some advances on graphene-based electrochemical biosensors for early cancer diagnosis including electrochemical immunosensors, electrochemical DNA biosensors, and electrochemical cell biosensors.

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Liquid Crystals as Sensitive Reporters of Lipid-Protein Interactions
Ipsita Pani, Diksha Sharma, Santanu Kumar Pal
General Chemistry    2018, 4 (2): 180012-180012.   DOI: 10.21127/yaoyigc20180012
Abstract833)   HTML58)    PDF (654KB)(647)       Save

The structural integrity of biological membranes is maintained by membrane proteins embedded in the lipid bilayer. A delicate balance of weak interactions between the lipid bilayer and membrane associated proteins regulates cellular homeostasis and disease states. Recently, there has been a growing interest in the construction of in vitro mimics of biological membranes. This allows the study of multiple facets of complex interactions involving lipids and proteins in a simple environment. In recent years, liquid crystal (LC) interfaces decorated with self-assembled layers of phospholipids have evolved as biomimetic systems for systematic study of lipid- protein interactions. Binding of proteins to these phospholipid-laden fluid interfaces can be coupled to the orientational ordering of LCs. In this minireview, we have surveyed the key investigations of these interactions using LC interfaces as the sensing platform. Micrometer thick films of liquid crystals can report interactions ranging from hydrolysis of lipids by enzymatic peptides to membrane induced amyloid formation.

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Advanced Layered Double Hydroxide-Based Electrocatalysts for Electrocatalytic Oxygen Evolution Reaction
Tariq Ali, Niaz Muhammad, Tingzhou Yang, and Chenglin Yan
General Chemistry    DOI: 10.21127/yaoyigc20200001
Online available: 09 February 2020

Synthesis and Applications of Two-Dimensional Transition Metal Sulfide Nanomaterials in Photothermal Therapy
Wentao Cao, Rui Liu, Jun Zhu
General Chemistry    2018, 4 (4): 180016-.   DOI: 10.21127/yaoyigc20180016
Abstract775)      PDF (1490KB)(756)       Save
Recently, cancer has becomes one of the best serious diseases which threatens seriously the life and health of human. Although the radiotherapy and chemotherapy have been used to treat cancer, these traditional treatments have always their own limitations. Therefore, a few materials and strategies have mentioned, many of which focused their attention on the two-dimensional (2D) photothermal nanomaterials including graphene, transition metal sulfide, and so on. There are good electronic transmission performances in these 2D nanomaterials, which contribute to the prefect photothermal conversion for cancer treatments. Additionally, their larger specific surface area can be used to load the drugs or integrate with other functional nanomaterials, and they with modified surface can be stabilized in organism and congregated in tumor site through an enhanced permeability and retention effect (EPR) effect. In order to understand the 2D nanomaterials deeply, we review some typical 2D transition metal sulfide nanomaterials including their preparation, modification and applications in biology.
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Peroxidase-Like Properties of Multiple Nano-Metallic Oxides under Various Conditions
Ting Liu, Kunfeng Zhao, Linyu Jin, Jun Zhu, Yamei Dong, Yinan Yan, Ping Wang, Dannong He
General Chemistry    2016, 2 (1): 44-48.   DOI: 10.21127/yaoyigc20150020
Abstract766)   HTML144)    PDF (390KB)(2125)       Save

Six types of different nano-metallic oxides were studied as peroxidase-like enzyme. By changing the amounts of nano-metallic oxides, pH value, the concentration of H2O2, reaction time, and so on, the peroxidase-like characteristics of all the six nano-metallic oxides were probed, and four of them (Co3O4, CrOx, NiO, MnOx) have the oxidase-like properties in the absence of H2O2, which is of great importance in the application of degrading phenolic pollutants in waste water.

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Progress of Liposomal Nanohybrid Cerasomes as Novel Drug Nanocarriers
Shihao Li, Jie Jiang, Shanshan Zhu, Yinan Yan, Gang Huang, Dannong He
General Chemistry    2017, 3 (4): 194-201.   DOI: 10.21127/yaoyigc20170013
Abstract766)   HTML80)    PDF (1367KB)(747)       Save

Despite many benefits, liposomes have still not realized their full potential as vehicles for drug delivery due to the morphological instability. Recently, liposomal nanohybrid cerasomes have been developed as novel drug nanocarriers based on organoalkoxysilane through a sol-gel reaction in combination with self-assembly process. The presence of polyorganosiloxane network on the surface imparts cerasomes higher morphological stability than conventional liposomes and the incorporation of liposomal bilayer structure into cerasomes boosts the biocompatibility in comparision with silica nanoparticles with similar size. Moreover, cerasomes are able to encapsulate various drug molecules and exhibit controlled drug release profile. In addition, cerasomes are easy to be conjugated with biomolecules through silane-coupler chemistry due to the silanols on the surface. Therefore, cerasomes are expected to be ideal drug delivery systems owning to the unique advantages. The present paper will briefly introduce the preparation and properties of cerasomes, followed by reviewing the progress of cerasomes for drug delivery.

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Hydrogen Refueling Stations: Safety and Sustainability
Mario Pagliaro, Adolfo Iulianelli
General Chemistry    DOI: 10.21127/yaoyigc20190029
Online available: 12 October 2019

Molecular Fullerenes Encapsulated in Metal-Organic Frameworks
Haibing Meng, Chunru Wang, Taishan Wang
General Chemistry    2018, 4 (4): 180019-.   DOI: 10.21127/yaoyigc20180019
Abstract745)      PDF (491KB)(802)       Save
Fullerenes have many potential applications in various fields such as biomedicine, organic photovoltaics, molecular device, et al. However, it is still meaningful to explore more functional fullerene materials due to their special structures and attractive properties. In recent years, metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have gained particular interest due to their potential applications in gas storage, catalysis, sensing, electronics, biomedicine, and so on. Considering the porous character of MOFs, it is fascinating to encapsulate molecular fullerenes into MOF pores and to construct new complex materials with unique properties and applications. In this minireview, we discuss the up-to-date study progress for the fullerene@MOF materials. We introduce firstly the preparation strategies, and then summarize the applications of these fullerene@MOF materials.
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Recent Advances on Near-Infrared-Emitting Poly[2-methoxy-5-(2-ethylhexyloxy)-1,4-phenylenevinylene] Polymer Dots for in vivo Imaging
Liqin Xiong
General Chemistry    2016, 2 (4): 99-106.   DOI: 10.21127/yaoyigc20160080
Abstract744)   HTML69)    PDF (2117KB)(552)       Save

Conjugated polymer dots emerge as attractive molecular imaging nanoprobes in living animals for their excellent optical properties including bright fluorescence intensity, excellent photostability, high emission rates, and low intrinsic cytotoxicity. This mini-review summarizes recent advances on near-infrared-emitting poly[2-methoxy-5- (2-ethylhexyloxy)-1,4-phenylenevinylene] polymer dots for in vivo bioimaging. The preparation of near-infrared MEH-PPV polymer dots is firstly discussed, followed by some examples of their applications ranging from lymph node mapping and tumor imaging to long-term tumor tracking.

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Borohydrides as Solid-State Hydrogen Storage Materials: Past, Current Approaches and Future Perspectives
Qiwen Lai, Kondo-Francois Aguey-Zinsou
General Chemistry    2018, 4 (4): 180017-.   DOI: 10.21127/yaoyigc20180017
Abstract721)      PDF (1397KB)(830)       Save
For long, the focus on hydrogen as an energy vector has been towards vehicle applications to decrease air pollution across cities and reduce our reliance on fossil fuels for transport. However, hydrogen has also the potential to enable the transition of current energy schemes towards clean and sustainable energy systems based on renewable energy. The major drawback remains the development of materials/methods for the safe storage of hydrogen with high-energy density. Recently, the idea of using borohydrides for hydrogen storage has gained increasing attention because of the high hydrogen density provided by these materials. However, the high temperatures for hydrogen release from these materials and their slow hydrogen kinetics remain the main challenges. Herein, current approaches to tailor the hydrogen storage properties of borohydrides towards practical applications are reviewed, including the restriction of borohydrides within various nanosized scaffolds. A summary of the remaining challenges and potential future research directions is also provided.
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Organocatalytic Regioselective Synthesis of Sulfur-Containing N-Alkyl Carbamates from Alkyne-Derived Cyclic Carbonates
Bin Liu, Xinghong Zhang
General Chemistry    2018, 4 (3): 180007-180007.   DOI: 10.21127/yaoyigc20180007
Abstract716)   HTML48)    PDF (350KB)(652)       Save
A highly regioselective synthesis of sulfur-containing N-alkyl carbamate from propargyl alcohol, carbon dioxide (CO2) and amine via metal-free catalysis is described. The regioselective ring-opening addition of tri-substituted cyclic carbonate with amine was investigated in detail. A key feature of this system is the ability to afford tertiary β-hydroxyl N-alkyl carbamate with 100% selectivity by using 1,5,7-triazabicyclo[4.4.0]dec-5-ene (TBD) as the catalyst in a wide range of reaction temperatures. The steric hindrance of amine and the use of ethanol favored the regioselective ring-opening addition reaction. A proposed mechanism for the ring-opening addition elaborated the underlying reason for the regioselective synthesis of sulfur-containing N-alkyl carbamate. This study provides a new alternative synthetic route to sulfur-containing N-alkyl carbamates from alkyne and CO 2 and may offer an attractive scaffold for further synthesis.
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Recent Progress on Endohedral Metallic Fullerenes
Yang Wei, Xiaomeng Li, Ning Chen
General Chemistry    2018, 4 (3): 180004-180004.   DOI: 10.21127/yaoyigc20180004
Abstract713)   HTML52)    PDF (424KB)(568)       Save

Endohedral metallic fullerenes (EMFs), featured by the encapsulation of metal ions, molecules and clusters inside the hollow sphere of carbon cage, have drawn great attention in the fullerene research field because of their unique structures and properties. In this minireview, we reviewed the most recent development in this area, focusing mainly on the large EMFs and magnetic EMFs. The relevance between the large carbon cage and cluster was discussed and the paramagnetism and single-molecule magnetism of EMFs, which are controlled by spin single electron and the coupling of f-shell of metal ions, were summarized.

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Theoretical Study of σ-π Conjugated Semiconductors Based on cis- and trans-Cyclopropane Derivatives
Yuyu Liu, Lei Yang, Xiaofei Zhang, Jiewei Li, Linghai Xie, Mingdong Yi, Wei Huang
General Chemistry    2015, 1 (1): 8-14.   DOI: 10.21127/yaoyigc20150001
Abstract711)   HTML187)    PDF (2702KB)(1007)       Save

The high strain cyclopropane as σ block model inserted in organic semiconductors to tune the structures and optical properties was investigated by the density functional theory method. The band gaps and absorption peaks of 1,2-disubstituted cyclopropanes were between the corresponding alkanes and olefins. The cis-isomers had higher steric strain between two substituents and lower symmetry than the trans-isomers in ground-state structures. The electronic transitions (S0→S1) were mainly on the aryl parts, which were stronger coherence with surrounding atoms in cis-isomers, while the trans-isomers were on the cyclopropyl. Furthermore, 1,2-disubstituted cyclopropanes (1A, 1B, 2A, 4B) could respond to the charge stimulation, which are potential materials for organic electronics and mechatronics.

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Freezing DNA for Controlling Bio/nano Interfaces and Catalysis
Juewen Liu
General Chemistry    2019, 5 (4): 190008-190008.   DOI: 10.21127/yaoyigc20190008
Abstract696)      PDF (196KB)(611)       Save
While most DNA-related reactions have been performed in solution, freezing has also been shown to offer interesting properties. DNA oligonucleotides are stretched and aligned in ice and the aligned DNA can quickly, tightly and in some cases densely adsorb on various nanomaterials. In addition, a few ribozymes and DNAzymes have better catalytic activities in ice than in solution. Some of these observations are related to the concentration of salt and DNA in the micropockets formed between ice crystals. With these interesting examples, future research can be devoted to detailed characterization of DNA in ice using in situ measurement methods, and finding their applications in biosensor development, catalysis and origin of life.
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State of the Art on Sb 2(S 1- x, Se x) 3 Thin Film Solar Cells
Thalía Jiménez, C. I. León-Pimentel, Diego Seuret-Jiménez, Maykel Courel
General Chemistry    2019, 5 (2): 180029-180029.   DOI: 10.21127/yaoyigc20180029
Abstract691)      PDF (752KB)(829)       Save
The Sb 2(S 1- x, Se x) 3 compound has received considerable attention in photovoltaic applications due to its physical properties and for containing abundant non-toxic elements. However, solar cells based on this material present low efficiencies. In this work, we review some of the physical properties reported for the semiconductors Sb 2S 3, Sb 2Se 3 and Sb 2(S 1- x, Se x) 3, and the main techniques of film deposition of the Sb 2(S 1- x, Se x) 3 ternary material along with the reported efficiencies. Finally, a brief review of the scarce theoretical analyses of the main properties of this semiconductor (refractive index, band-gap energy, absorption coefficient and recombination) is presented. This review remarks the need of more theoretical analyses and modeling to optimize and improve the fabrication processes of Sb 2(S 1- x, Se x) 3 solar cells in order to reach better conversion efficiencies.
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A Facile Top-Down Method to Fabricate Transition Metal Compounds with Fascinating Structures from Etching method
Wujie Dong, Shuying Nong, Zichao Liu, Xin Wang, Xiaotao Yuan, Yantao Zhao, Ruiqi Wang, Chenlong Dong, Zidi Yang, Jianing Gan, Fuqiang Huang
General Chemistry    2018, 4 (1): 170022-170022.   DOI: 10.21127/yaoyigc20170022
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Transition metal oxides with nanoscale or special micro-structures are favoured both in scientific research and industry application. Although many methods are developed, there is still a need and a potential payoff for developing a novel and convenient synthetic method. Inspired by nature hydrothermal vent, herein, we develop an ingenious “top-down” method to prepare various transition material compounds, which have diverse and fascinating structures. Our design thought is to etch the A ions by acid from the precursor AxMyOz (A=alkaline and alkaline earth metal, M=transition metal) and leave the MOn/2 or HMO(n+1)/2 behind under the hydrothermal condition. As a result, we obtain various structures like amorphous mesoporous bulk Nb2O5, morphology-re- tained bulk HNbO3 and ZrO2, monodispersed ZrO2 nanoparticles, assembled porous ZrO2 nanostructure, hollow TiO2, and the derived core-shell structure. These materials have great potential application in catalysis and energy storage. We employed hollow TiO2 cube as the high cut-off anode of lithium-ion batteries and harvested excellent performance. After these fruitful attempts, we have found that etching AxMyOz to obtain transition metal compound is a complex reaction containing some different competing reactions, thus allowing us to regulate and control the microstructure of the products by adjusting the reaction condition. We believe there are more interesting structures waiting to be fabricated by similar “top-down” method and these unique materials have great potential in many fields.

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Water Stability of Metal-Organic Framework HKUST-1
Angela Terracinaa, and Gianpiero Buscarino
General Chemistry    2021, 7 (4): 210002-210002.   DOI: 10.21127/yaoyigc20210002
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Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are a new class of crystalline porous materials, having wide pores which provide extremely high specific surface areas, larger than those typically observed in more common porous materials like zeolites or activated carbons. This peculiar property combined with the frequent presence of open-metal sites, makes them very promising for a broad range of applications, spacing from gas storage or separation, drug delivery, toxic air removal, chemical detectors, etc. However, the industrialization of MOFs is still facing difficulties because of their low stability to water or even air moisture, a substance difficult to avoid in applications like those mentioned. Another issue concerning MOF industrialization consists in the low bulk density of the micrometric powder grains, which typically constitute such materials. Unfortunately, their low mechanical stability seems to make difficult even to enhance the packaging by simple mechanical compaction. In this review, we will particularly focus on the current state of art involving the MOF HKUST-1, especially on the degradation process involved when this MOF interacts with water molecules. Furthermore, we will show the connection between water and mechanical stability, bringing to attention of a study where solid tablets of HKUST-1 powder have been realized without any loss of crystallinity or porosity because of an accurate study on the effects of different degree of hydration during the tableting phases. In addition, in order to highlight the causes of damages induced in the framework upon interaction with water, a comparison with other two copper carboxylate MOFs will be shown, namely STAM-1 and STAM-17-OEt, which differ from HKUST-1 uniquely for the organic ligands.
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Progress of Lymph-Targeted Contrast Agents and Their Application in Diagnosis of Tumor Lymphatic Metastasis
Ying Zhang, Jie Wang, Jiejun Cheng, Yu Qiao, Gang Huang, Jun Zhu, Dannong He
General Chemistry    2017, 3 (1): 118-122.   DOI: 10.21127/yaoyigc20160003
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Lymph node metastasis is an important aspect for tumor metastasis, which accounts for a majority of cancer death. Non-invasive imaging techniques play a more important role than traditional lymph node biopsy for diagnosis of metastatic lymph nodes. However, non-specific information of lymph node such as size and morphology could only be obtained in traditional imaging techniques, which always bring about mission detection. Thus, lymph-targeted contrast agents are attracting much interest. Presently, most contrast agents are based on the mechanism of passive targeting, which could be affected by the number and function of macrophages in the lymph nodes. Therefore, it is beneficial to study the tumor lymphatic metastases through developing new lymph-targeted contrast agents, which could bring fresh prospect for tumor diagnosis and treatment. The paper reviews the progress of lymph-targeted contrast agents and their diagnosis technology for cancer.

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Progress in Forward Osmosis Membrane Separation Process
Qiaozhen Chen, Wenxuan Xu, Qingchun Ge
General Chemistry    2017, 3 (3): 148-154.   DOI: 10.21127/yaoyigc20170009
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Forward osmosis (FO) has been extensively investigated and demonstrated its advantages in a range of FO applications over the past decade. However, challenges still remain in terms of the lack of both efficient FO membranes and appropriate draw solutes for practical FO applications. To promote the advancement of FO technology, considerable efforts have been made in exploring novel FO membranes and draw solutes in recent years. This paper will provide a short review on the progress of both FO membranes and draw solutes. First of all, a brief overview on FO principle is given. Then the progress in FO technology related to FO membrane and draw solute is presented with specific examples. Finally, challenges and future directions of FO technology in exploring efficient FO membranes and promising draw solutes are also highlighted. This article may provide new insights into the future development of FO technology and promote practical FO applications.

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Converting Waste Plastics into High Yield and Quality Carbon-Based Materials
Qinghong Kong, Ling Yang, Junhao Zhang, Yibing Cai
General Chemistry    2017, 3 (3): 155-158.   DOI: 10.21127/yaoyigc20170010
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Recycling waste plastics including polypropylene, polyethylene, polyethylene terephthalate, polystyrene, etc, is a very important scientific, social and economic topic. Despite significant advances in recent years, approximately 400 million tons of waste plastics are still disposed by landfill. This is obviously not an effective solution due to plastic’s non-biodegradable character. Aside from mechanical recycling, which turns waste plastics into new products, and thermal recycling, which releases the thermal energy through combustion of waste plastics, chemical recycling converts waste plastics into feedstock for chemicals/materials/fuels production. This article reviews previous work on the pyrolysis and catalytic decomposition route that converted plastics into carbon-based materials, which exhibited extraordinary physical and chemical properties. However, their production processes are both resource and energy-intensive. Therefore, recycling technologies for waste plastics are still at an early stage and more innovation in waste plastic recycling is needed.

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Characterization of Gas Adsorption Sites and Behaviors in Metal-Organic Frameworks
Xiao-Jing Hu, Xuan Wang, Ying-Pin Chen, Da-Huan Liu, Tian-Fu Liu
General Chemistry    2018, 4 (4): 180006-.   DOI: 10.21127/yaoyigc20180006
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In this paper, we start with a short introduction to the research background of gas adsorption in the metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) field, and then we highlight the gas adsorption sites and behaviors with the aid of various characterization methods, among which we discuss mainly infrared absorption and Raman scattering, as well as X-ray diffraction and neutron diffraction. In addition, we introduce briefly X-ray spectroscopy because they also play a crucial role in understanding MOFs’ gas adsorption. On the other hand, computational simulations, which can reveal underlying adsorption and working mechanism in microscale, are also discussed. Finally, comprehensive kinetic studies are briefly summarized based on these advanced characterization methods.
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Adsorptive Removal of Pb(II) Ions with Magnetic Metal-Organic Frameworks from Aqueous Samples
Haochi Liu, Feifei Li, Ligang Chen, Jie Ding, Mingli Sun
General Chemistry    2017, 3 (2): 134-139.   DOI: 10.21127/yaoyigc20170003
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In this study, we report the application of magnetic metal-organic frameworks as a novel adsorbent for fast removal of Pb(II) ions from aqueous solution in view of adsorption isotherms, kinetics, thermodynamics, desorption, and adsorbent regeneration. The adsorbent was characterized by PPMS, XRD, TEM and N2 adsorption/desorption measurement. The adsorption follows pseudo-second-order kinetics model and fits the Freundlich adsorption model with the adsorption capacity of 612 mg g–1 for Pb(II) ions. It is a spontaneous and endothermic process controlled by positive entropy change. The used Fe3O4/HKUST-1 could be regenerated effectively and recycled at least four times without significant loss of adsorption capacity.

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Writing with Light: Recent Advances in Optical Storage Property of Azobenzene Derivatives
A. R. Yuvaraj, Sandeep Kumar
General Chemistry    2018, 4 (1): 170020-170020.   DOI: 10.21127/yaoyigc20170020
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The mechanism of writing with light depends on photoisomerization ability of light sensitive compounds. The recent advances in photoisomerization phenomenon of azobenzene derivatives are explained on the basis of experimental evidence. Azobenzene derivatives have few limitations in optical storage when it comes to practical and industrial purpose. However, azobenzene derivatives have significant interests because of their excellent light sensitivity and isomerization properties. The fabrication of azobenzene films also plays an important role in the production of an optical storage device. The molecular level layer properties, writing and erasing can be tuned by modification of molecular structures. To explain the concept, writing with light needs high light sensitivity and long duration of thermal back relaxation property. Hence, tuning of thermal back relaxation in the storage process is mainly considered.

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Multifunctional Lymph-Targeted ZnO:Gd@Hyaluronic Acid Nanospheres: Preparation and Application in Tumor Diagnose
Jiejun Cheng, Huajuan Zhang, Jiong Zhu, Lijun Qian, Qing Lu, Guangyu Wu, Jianrong Xu, Jun Zhu
General Chemistry    2016, 2 (1): 31-37.   DOI: 10.21127/yaoyigc20150014
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A novel multi-modal lymph-targeted contrast agent, ZnO:Gd@hyaluronic acid (HA) nanospheres, is prepared by Gd dopped ZnO quantum dot, modified by silica shell and grafted by HA molecule. The physicochemical properties are characterized and the lymphatic targeting is evaluated in vitro. Moreover, the contrast agent is used for in vivo lymphoma magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The results show that the ZnO:Gd@HA nanospheres with 19% of quantum yield and 5.8 mM–1•s–1 of relaxivity could be used for in vivo lymphatic targeting studies. Furthermore, they are highly targeted to lymph system in vitro and in vivo, and highlight their MRI in lymph tumor. Thus, the novel MRI contrast agent can be taken up selectively by lymphatic system and used as a potential multi-modal contrast agent in lymphatic system.

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Iodobenzene Dicarboxylates as Transferrable Oxygen Sources: Synthesis of α-Oxygenated Ketones from Terminal Aryl Alkynes
Bao-Yi Ren, Daokun Zhong, Nan Guo, Weikun Duan, Shuai Song, Xue Yang
General Chemistry    2016, 2 (1): 49-54.   DOI: 10.21127/yaoyigc20150018
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A facile and efficient method for preparation of α-oxygenated ketones has been developed via the reaction of terminal aryl alkynes with various iodobenzene dicarboxylates. When bis(trifluoroacetoxy)iodobenzene (PIFA) was used, α-hydroxy ketones were obtained in high to excellent yields. The hypervalent iodine(III) reagents can function as an electrophile, transferrable O-nucleophile, and an excellent leaving group. The protocol represents a direct, atom-efficient and metal-free conversion of alkynes into α-oxygenated ketones under mild conditions.

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Nanomaterial Fused Monolithic Microcolumns for Biomolecule Separation
M. A. Vijayalakshmi, Kishore K. R. Tetala
General Chemistry    2018, 4 (2): 180014-180014.   DOI: 10.21127/yaoyigc20180014
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Achieving a highly pure biomolecule of interest is of great importance and chromatography based techniques are the reliable tools for this challenging task. During the last few decades, monoliths have been explored as alternative chromatography stationary phases for biomolecule separation. In this Minireview, we aim to provide information on different nanomaterials incorporated within the network of monoliths and strategies applied to perform nanomaterial surface  functionalization. Subsequently, the applications of “nanomaterials embedded monolithic microcolumns” for separation of target biomolecules such as proteins and peptides with the help of different chromatography principles such as affinity, ionic and hydrophobic is also discussed in detail.
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