Iron oxides, such as hematite (α-Fe2O3), maghemite (γ-Fe2O3), and magnetite (Fe3O4), have been considered as alternative anode materials for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) due to their high theoretical capacity, abundant reserves, low cost, and non-toxicity. However, their practical application has been hampered by the large volume expansion, which leads to rapid capacity fading. Nanostructure engineering has been demonstrated to be an effective avenue in tackling the volume variation issue and boosting the electrochemical performances. Herein, recent advances on nanostructure engineering of iron oxides for lithium storage are summarized. These nanostructures include 0D nanoparticles, 1D nanowires/nanorods/ nanofibers/nanotubes, 2D nanoflakes/nanosheets, as well as 3D porous/hollow/hierarchical architectures. The structure- electrochemical performance correlations are also discussed. It is believed that the performance optimization strategies summarized here might be extended to other high-capacity LIB anode materials.